Coal in an Enlarged European Union
AUTHOR: Stephen Mills
DATE: May 2004
This report examines the impact of enlargement on overall coal reserves, production and consumption within the EU. Coal's present and future importance is assessed through examination of current individual national energy budgets and requirements, and consideration of how these are likely to develop in the future. As part of this, the influence of national energy policies is considered, with particular respect to coal, of existing Member States and Accession Countries. Countries where hard coal or lignite plays a major role (where annual consumption exceeds approx. 10 Mt) are considered in greater depth. Thus, for the former, studies are presented for Belgium, France, Greece, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Accession Countries examined comprise the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. Within each case study, a range of issues are considered, including the influence of how existing and proposed energy policies may impact on the future of coal within the particular country. In some cases, policy is still being formulated, hence the situation may not yet be clear.