Industrial Coal Use-Prospects for Emissions Reduction
AUTHOR: Irene M. Smith and Hermine Nalbandian
DATE: October 2000
The prospects for emissions reduction in small industrial boilers (stoker and FBC boilers), the iron and steel industry and cement manufacture are examined with respect to the greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O), particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions. Sources of these emissions are identified for each industry. The validity of reference emissions factors, used for emissions inventories, is examined in the light of recent studies. Opportunities for preventing emissions (abatement) and controlling them are discussed, for both existing commercial technologies and those undergoing research and development.
Emissions may be reduced in all industries by adopting good practices and preventive measures without necessarily resorting to flue gas treatment systems. Improved efficiency, integration, automatic control and optimisation reduce fuel consumption, generally reducing CO2 and other emissions from coal used in industry. Fuel substitution, cofiring and byproduct utilisation may reduce emissions in many cases but are not always appropriate for the industry. Flue gas treatment is available where necessary to meet stringent emission standards for particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions from all the industries reviewed.