UK CAER Current News

The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is one of the University of Kentucky's multidisciplinary research centers. Its energy research provides a focal point for environmental, renewable and fossil fuels research in Kentucky.

Congressman Visits UK CAER Algae Demo at Kentucky Power Plant

clock July 24, 2015 10:18 by author Alice
The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) recently demonstrated a pilot scale photobioreactor that converts CO2 in flue gas to algal biomass via photosynthesis to U.S. Congressman Thomas Massie of Kentucky’s 4th Congressional District. (See Congressman Massie’s Facebook post on the visit.) The algae demo is a joint project between UK CAER and Duke Energy’s East Bend Power Station in Boone County, Kentucky.

Members of UK CAER Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis research group were on hand to explain the process and equipment to the Congressman. UK CAER Associate Director Mark Crocker outlined the project’s origins and goals, and summarized the various steps involved in cultivating and harvesting algae, as well as processing algae biomass into useful products.

Ms. Stephanie Kesner, UK CAER, is a biological scientist who takes care of the algae organisms. The project specifically works with microalgae, which are single celled organisms around 5 microns in size. Though they do photosynthesize, though they are not plants. Even though they have moving parts, they are not animals nor bacteria. Algae are in their own taxonomic classification, and are actually one of the fastest growing organism on the planet with the ability to double their mass in a day. The particular species of alga we have in our reactor is called Scenedesmus Acutus, a local freshwater species of microalgae which can withstand pretty harsh environmental conditions while utilizing CO2 from flue gas to photosynthesize and grow.

According to Michael Wilson, UK CAER Engineer and project manager, the cyclic flow photobioreactor was developed at the Center for Applied Energy Research to create an optimum, controlled growth environment for microalgae while minimizing energy consumption required. The reactor is composed of off-the-shelf parts including 8’ long, 3.5 inch diameter clear PETG (coke bottle material) tubes integrated with PVC pipe fittings and arranged to maximize photon collection needed to drive photosynthesis. Flue gas is introduced to the bottom of the tubes and sparged for 20 seconds every minute in order to ensure good mixing for mass transfer and increase CO2 conversion efficiency. Periodically, 6 times per day, the tube banks are drained back to a main feed tank, mixed, and sent back out to the phototube array to continue normal operation. This ‘cyclic’ operation ensures limited exposure to dead zones in the reactor (dark zones, places with suboptimal gas introduction, etc) while also preventing biofilm formation. So far this iteration of photobioreactor has outperformed all before it in terms of operational stability, performance, and biomass productivity. The faster the algae grows, the more CO2 is consumed.

UK CAER group member and engineer Daniel Mohler talked about the field analytical equipment used in mass balance experiments in order to determine CO2and NOx reduction. These molecular species are measured in the gas going into the reactor then measured again in the gas coming out of the reactor, allowing for calculations of CO2 and NOx reduction.

The algae need to be harvested regularly as the culture grows and becomes more dense, thus limiting light penetration according to UK CAER Engineer Jack Groppo. To harvest the algae, roughly 80% of the culture volume is diverted into a thickener where the algae cells are flocculated and settled. Clarified water containing soluble nutrients are decanted from the thickener, sterilized with UV light and recycled back into the system to dilute the remaining 20% of the culture volume for another growth cycle. Settled algae is then filtered for utilization as feedstock for bioplastic manufacture and biofuel production. Other products from algae could include livestock feed (as it can be up to 30% protein); dietary supplements and neutraceuticals since it contains Omega 3 fatty acids and carbohydrates.

The UK CAER team is excited about the future possibilities this project presents in developing algae's unique ability to beneficially re-use greenhouse gas emissions. This technology has the potential to drive economic growth, enable food and energy security, while reducing the impact of industrial emissions.

The UK CAER Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Algae Research Team (L to R): Daniel Mohler, Jack Groppo, Stephanie Kesner, Mike Wilson and Mark Crocker.


UK CAER attends Statewide Wood Energy Team Events

clock July 23, 2015 17:51 by author Alice
Dr. Darrell Taulbee, Industrial Support Coordinator, and Outreach and Technical Assistance Coordinator Greg Copley participated in Kentucky’s Statewide Wood Energy Team (SWET) field trip July 21, 2015. An active timber logging site and a reclaimed surface mine reforestation project were visited. Both sites are in Pike Co. KY. The tours were in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Council of Forest Engineering hosted by the UK Forestry Department. Other participants include bio energy interests, forest managers and state and federal forestry representatives.

Dr. Taulbee, right, with fellow SWET member Bobby Clark of Midwest Clean Energy. Taulbee and Copley have participated in previous events including a tour of RECAST Energy’s biomass boiler in Louisville and the 2014 Bioenergy Day at Murray State University. SWET is an initiative sponsored by the KY Energy and Environment Cabinet.


UK CAER Catalysis Paper is Journal of Catalysis Featured Article

clock July 23, 2015 17:42 by author Alice
A paper authored by scientists from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research group - Clean Fuels and Chemicals - is a Journal of Catalysis Editor-in-Chief's Feature Article.

 

Starting this year, the Journal of Catalysis has decided to select one article each week as Featured Article. These articles will be prominently displayed on the Journal’s homepage (http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-catalysis/featured-articles/) and will be made freely available to the public for 3 months following publication of the respective issue.

 

The paper entitled, "Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Effect of ammonia in syngas on the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis performance of a precipitated iron catalyst" has been selected as one of the four Featured Articles from the June 2015 issue.

 

The authors of the paper include: Wenping Ma, Gary Jacobs, Dennis E. Sparks, Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala, Shelley G. Hopps, Gerald A. Thomas, Hussein H. Hamdeh, Aimee MacLennan, Yongfeng Hu, Burtron H. Davis. (Citation: Journal of Catlysis, Volume 326, June 2015, Pages 149-160).

 



UK CAER Staff Co-authors for Paper Featured in COP Highlights

clock July 23, 2015 17:33 by author Alice
UK CAER Scientist Dr. James C. Hower and Mr. Greg Copley, UK CAER Eastern Kentucky Coordinator are co-authors on a paper that the College of Pharmacy Research Advisory Council selected for the May COP Monthly Publications Highlights. The paper, "Terfestatins B and C, New p-Terphenyl Glycosides Produced by Streptomyces sp. RM-5-8" was recently published in Organic Letters, 2015, 17 (11), pp.2796-2799, (DOI: 10.1021/asc.orglett.5b01203). Organic Letters is an ACS Publications journal.


UK CAER Projected Mentioned in Power Engineering International Magazine

clock June 12, 2015 08:55 by author Alice
In a March 18, 2015 article from the Power Engineering International Magazine that was entitled "Managing Coal Ash", the University of Kentucky's Rare Earth Elements project was mentioned as a research group that is working to develop the growing area of coal ash use in the extraction of desirable rare earth metals.

Jim Hower and Jack Groppo from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and Dr. Rick Honaker of the UK Mining Engineering department and Cortland Eble at the Kentucky Geological Survey are the scientists working on this project.


UK CAER Publication from Canadian Light Source: From plant matter to jet fuel

clock June 11, 2015 17:40 by author Alice


An article about UK CAER's experts (the handsome fellows in the above picture are (left to right): Dr. Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala, Senior Research Scientist; Dr. Gary Jacobs, Principal Research Engineer; and Dr. Burtron H. Davis, Assistant Director, all from the Clean Fuels and Chemicals Group located at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research) focus and ability in harnessing synchrotron research to refine the processes used to convert plants to gas to usable liquid was recently featured on the Canadian Light Source website.

The article From plant matter to jet fuel - Streamlining the production of ultraclean fuel discusses how the CAER team uses synchrotron analysis to study the effects of specific impurities on the conversion process to try to identify at what threshold each chemical blocks efficient conversion to usable fuel. Right now, roughly one-third to one-half of the cost to produce syngas for fuel production comes from cleaning out impurities. In the long term, this work could help large companies produce inexpensive, clean, and renewable sources by significantly cutting that cost.

The full article can be read from the Canadian Light Source website.

Phys.org also picked up the article.


UK CAER Analytical Services Staff Exhibit at the International Biomass Expo

clock June 11, 2015 17:32 by author Alice


Darrell Taullbee, scientist from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research gave a presentation while various UK CAER staff attended and exhibited at the 2015 International Biomass Conference and Expo in Minneapolis, MN. (Pictured: Darrell Taulbee and Courtney Fisk. Not pictured: Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez).


UK CAER Algae CO2 Remediation Services Published in ABO, Algae Industry Project Book

clock June 11, 2015 16:01 by author Alice
The East Bend Demonstration project at the Duke Energy Power Plant in Union, Kentucky is the site of a demonstration scale photobioreactor that converts the CO2 in flue gas to algal biomass via photosynthesis. The Algae Industry Project Book highlighted this joint project between Duke Energy and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research project conducted by the Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis research group. The report is published by the Algae Biomass Organziation (www.algaebiomass.org) showcases some of the member companies that are developing algae's unique ability to drive economic growth, enable food and energy security and reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions.


Made in Kentucky Documentary Created by University of Kentucky

clock June 11, 2015 15:55 by author Alice
"Made in Kentucky," a one hour documentary, discusses the issues Kentucky faces — growing concerns about climate change and the demand for coal replaced by the demand for natural gas — and explores some of the solutions that might lead to a stronger Kentucky economy while still protecting the environment. To read more, review the UKNOW News story.


2015 Science Fair High School Students Interning at UK CAER

clock June 11, 2015 15:31 by author Alice
The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research hosts several local Lexington high school senior interns each year. The students create a specific project and then are advised, mentored and also work along side the scientists on that project in the CAER laboratories. These projects will result in the high school seniors presenting their results at local, district and state science fairs.

 

High school senior Kristen Moore competed in the District Science Fair and was awarded the Mayor's Urban Environmental Award. She then completed in the regional science fair. Axel Kiefer from Tates Creek High School also competed in the district science fair, in the environmental science category. Both Kristen and Axel worked with the UK CAER Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Research group under the leadership of Dr. Mark Crocker.

 

Madison Hood, Kentucky High School Senior from Dunbar High School won first place in her topical category at the District Science Fair. She interned with Dr. James Hower, UK Petrology Lab.


UK CAER Collaboration with University of Milan in Italy

clock June 11, 2015 15:22 by author Alice
As part of a collaboration with Professor Carlo Visconti and Professor Luca Lietti from the University of Milan, Italy, UK-CAER’s Clean Fuels and Chemicals Research group, led by Dr. Burtron H. Davis, had the opportunity to host Ms. Michela Martinelli, a PhD graduate student, for several months.

 

During that time, Ms. Martinelli worked with UK-CAER research staff to investigate methods to improve low temperature water-gas shift catalysts for fuel cell applications. She worked very hard, and one manuscript was accepted for publication in an excellent journal, while a second completed manuscript was submitted as a book chapter.

 

During her stay at UK-CAER, Ms. Martinelli collaborated not only with our staff, but also with researchers at both Brookhaven National Laboratory, where she had the opportunity to visit and conduct experiments, and Argonne National Laboratory. We are happy to report that Dr. Michela Martinelli successfully defended her PhD thesis in December of 2014.


UK CAER's History with Petrographers

clock June 11, 2015 15:12 by author Alice
Jim Hower, UK CAER (far left), with his PhD students (Trent – 2015 anticipated; Jen – 2008, Joan – 1990).

 

The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research hosted a rather informal meeting of petrographers that have previously worked at the CAER. The large group was a happy coincidence of Maria, Agnieszka, and Ali coming down from Bloomington, Indiana, and Joan Esterle just happening to be in the area while visiting family in Louisville, Kentucky (see photo above).

 

From left to right: Trent Garrison (Kentucky PhD student), Jim Hower (University of Kentucky CAER), Ali Karayigit (Hacettepe Univ., Turkey), Joan Esterle (Univ. Queensland), Jen O’Keefe (Morehead State Univ.), and Maria Mastalerz and Agnieszka Drobniak (Indiana Geological Survey).


UK CAER Staff Receives Training from Agilent

clock June 11, 2015 15:02 by author Alice
Back in 2009, Agilent Technologies brought a GC Tips and Tricks Seminar to CAER presented by Daron Decker. The seminar was highly informative and equally entertaining. For the past 6 years, Agilent has reserved Daron’s energetic presentations for the Western US and Canada. Daron recently returned to CAER to give another GC Tips and Tricks Seminar and he most certainly did not disappoint! About 30 people were in attendance including several from local industry, UK Campus, CAER and Agilent Technologies. The seminar included three 1-hour discussions: Injector Maintenance, Troubleshooting GC Systems, and Faster GC Analysis. A big thanks goes out to Mike Purcell, our Agilent Technologies Sales Representative, for coordinating the event.


UK CAER Staffer is Behind-the-Scenes Faciliator to West Liberty Community

clock June 11, 2015 11:20 by author Alice

Greg Copley, University of Kentucky CAER Regional Field Representative located in West Liberty, Kentucky has been involved in the effort to create studies for a town redesign to help eradicate the devastation caused by the 2012 tornado that ripped through the West Liberty community.   Greg introduced Greg Luhan, UK College of Design, to local business people that were interested in having a redesign of the town created in order to lure new businesses into the area.  

Greg has been a "behind the scenes" coordinator between the UK College of Design team and local business people in West Liberty during this project.  For more on the project and what it means to West Liberty, read the UKNOW's Story.



UK CAER Seeks Programmer Systems Analyst Senior Position

clock April 27, 2015 09:39 by author Alice

The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research is seeking a Programmer Systems Analyst Senior for our Operations Department. This position is responsible for design and implement schema changes of a large operational database to meet departmental needs. This position regularly evaluates possible changes needed to improve the system for existing business requirements as well as make modifications that are required for a wide variety of new business requirements. This individual will also modify and create new forms as needed to facilitate existing and new departmental workflows; work with end users to make changes that are required; and meet with end users and supervisors to determine business requirements. This position also includes programming in the Microsoft Net Framework, for new software to implement existing or new business requirements, this software includes web based as well as desktop software; developments mobile occasionally connected applications using Microsoft tools; and in conjunction with departmental supervisors determines software requirements as needed. This individual supports end users with any issues arising from the database, or any of the database related software; includes installation or provisioning the departments desktop, laptops or tablets with the front-end software needed to access the database, along with ODBC DSN entries, etc. This position may also be assigned to the Center’s support office in Frankfort for support of programming and databases.

More Information:  https://ukjobs.uky.edu/postings/63568



UK CAER's Regional Outreach Rep Arranges for Centre Students to Tour Surface Mine

clock February 5, 2015 11:23 by author Alice


On January 13, 2015, CAER’s Outreach and Technical Assistance Coordinator, Greg Copley arranged for a group of Centre College freshmen to tour Licking River Resources’ surface mine in Magoffin County.  Dr. Marie Nydam’s Economic, Environmental and Social Effects of Coal Mining in Eastern Kentucky class of 13 students spent roughly 5 hours at the site observing the coal extraction and washing processes.

Licking River’s Vice President Chris Lacy and Keith Fletcher, Land Manager provided the tour and discussed coal’s role in eastern Kentucky as an economic and energy driver. This was the first opportunity for many students to be in eastern KY and go on an active mine site. Many comments were made regarding the complexity of mining, the size of the equipment and the abilities of the miners. The class also witnessed the blasting of a new mine section.

Finally a tour and explanation of the company’s award worthy reclamation efforts occurred. The participants learned how reclaimed land are habitat for a variety of wildlife including elk, turkey, and free range horses.



Utilitiy Economic Group Tours UK CAER

clock February 5, 2015 11:13 by author Alice

THE LG&E/KU Economic Analysis group tour UK CAER on the afternoon of February 4th.  They toured several research areas in the renewables Lab 2; minerals and carbon labs; and the algae greenhouse. 



New Research Funded at UK CAER

clock January 22, 2015 16:28 by author Alice
The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research has again made funding available to provide seed grant opportunities to CAER researchers to collaborate in exploring new energy-related ideas and to open up new avenues of research. This program, the "brainchild" of Directory Rodney Andrews, was established to bridge the divide between internal creative ideas and large government grants and/or industrial funding, with the objective being to develop a process of converting new research concepts into competitive proposals. The success of this program since its inception is obvious with 3 papers written; 4 proposals written and all 4 proposals funded for a total of nearly $800,00.00 of external funding!     For the second year, the CAER Staff gathered to hear presentations given by 8 different young scientists that received a "seed" grant during 2014.

 

Leland Widger - Presenter - Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon-Loaded Amine Solutions for CO2 Capture and Utilization (co-authors Cameron Lippert): Much effort in recent research has focused on the direct activation of CO2 by hydrogenation catalysts for reduction by molecular H2 to methanol. However, the direct activation of gaseous CO2 and the subsequent reduction by 3 reducing equivalents is a difficult and energy-intensive transformation. We proposed to combine the advantages of amine-based CCS, the activation of CO2 by aqueous amines, with the utility of reduction catalysts to obtain an accessible and valuable chemical feedstock, formic acid. Hydrogenation by a single reducing equivalent would be more atom-efficient than methanol production, but the feasibility of direct reduction of carbamate in aqueous solution needed to be evaluated.

 

Bob Jewell - Presenter - Evaluation of Pure Ettringite/MWCNT Array Layered Composite for Piezoelectric Effect - (co-authors Anne Oberlink and Ashley Morris): The overarching objective of this research is to functionalize calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements for energy harvesting and as a smart-sensing construction material. The discovery and characterization of ettringite, the primary strength contributor in CSA cement, as a piezoelectric crystal phase will create new knowledge on energy harvesting from CSA cement materials. The data on material properties and piezoelectric potential of ettringite-rich cementitious structural elements will not only enable the functionalization of construction materials as energy harvesting components but also will lay a solid foundation for future piezoelectric cementitious design. This project was awarded a National Science Foundation Grant for $309,737; which was directly related to the results from the CAER Seed Research Grant.

 

Nick Holubowitch - Presenter - Scavenging Waste Heat with Carbon Nanotubes in Thermelectrochemical Cells - (co-authors Cameron Lippert, James Landon): The work investigated the conversion of waste heat, a ubiquitous form of currently untapped energy, to electricity, a usable, concentrated form, using thermoelectrochemical cells. The Carbon group provided low-cost spray coated carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes which were subjected to a variety of optimizations in our custom built device for thermal energy scavenging. We constructed a cell capable of delivering a mass activity of 290 W kg-1 CNTs by only using 0.08 mg cm-2 (<$0.01 per cell) of this normally cost-prohibitive material. The findings should be of broader interest to myriad energy storage and conversion technologies seeking to exploit the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes. The seed funding led to a full grant ($94,000) from the Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence.

 

Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez - Presenter - Carbon-supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for Bio-oil Hydrodeoxygenation - (co-authors Robert Pace, Ashley Morris, John Craddock): Albeit carbide catalysts have been proposed as a replacement for the problematic and/or expensive formulations used to catalyze several reactions, bulk (unsupported) carbides display surface areas inadequately low for catalytic applications. In the work funded with this seed grant, researchers in the Biofuels & Environmental Catalysis group increased the surface area of molybdenum carbide catalysts through the use of carbon supports developed by researchers of the Carbon Materials group. The resulting carbon-supported carbide catalysts not only showed superior performance in a reaction modeling the upgrading of biomass-derived oils, but synthetic parameters were found to control the structure of these formulations, which provides a way to further improve – and understand – their performance. Notably, the results of this project have already been submitted for publication.

 

Yaying Ji - Presenter - Development of Bifunctional Catalysts for Reductive Depolymerization of Lignin into Value-Added Chemicals - (co-authors Robert Pace, Dali Qian): Lignin is a principal constituent of lignocellulosic biomass (15-30% by weight, 40% by energy), so it has potential to act as a feedstock for the renewable production of a wide variety of bulk and fine chemicals. Depolymerization of lignin to valuable chemicals is challenging due to its recalcitrance. Our goal is to develop a less expensive Ni-based catalytic approach for conversion of lignin into aromatic chemicals.

 

Robert Hodgen - Presenter - Construction and Demonstration of a Torrefaction Kiln for Bio-char Production - (co-author Darrell Taulbee): Torrefaction is process in which raw biomass is heated under relatively mild conditions in an autogenous atmosphere. Torrefied biomass formed into pellets or briquettes have numerous advantages relative to raw biomass including a higher heating value, higher energy density, and a greater resistance to water degradation as well as a significant advantage that bio-char agglomerates can be processed and co-fired in existing power plants without the need for specialized feed or pulverization equipment. This study, which focused on kiln construction followed by the production and evaluation of briquettes made with torrefied biomass, revealed that a relatively mild pyrolysis temperature of 200 oC appeared to be optimum in terms of producing the most suitable briquetter feedstock. Further, these mild conditions resulted in relatively little loss of volatile matter yet provided a substantial improvement in calorific value and improved resistance to water degradation.

 

Jesse Thompson - Presenter - CO2 Capture Solvent Purification with Adsorbant Bio-Char from Algae: Preparation, Characterization and Adsorption Studies - (coauthors Sarah Honchul, Robert Pace): The bio-char residue produced as a by-product from thermal treatments of algal biomass for biofuel production was evaluated, without any additional upgrading, for its ability to adsorb operational contaminant (amines and heavy metals) from carbon capture solvents. The bio-char from pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and torrefaction of algal biomass grown in bioreactors with carbon dioxide from a coal burning power plant showed comparable adsorption of the amine contaminants compared to a commercial activated carbon. Adsorption of heavy metals was comparably low with the bio-char evaluated. Additional upgrading with acid treatments, activation at higher temperatures, or alumina-modification may improve the metal adsorption of this bio-char.

 

Michael Wilson - Presenter - Upcycling of Brewery Byproducts Using Microalgae - (coauthors and pictured left is Thomas Grubbs and C. Cecil; Stephanie Kesner, not pictured): The CAER has a unique opportunity to collaborate on a sustainable project with two progressive Lexington organizations, West Sixth Brewing Company and FoodChain. Spent grains from the brewing process at West Sixth are currently combined with a protein source to feed tilapia grown by FoodChain. The water, containing organic nutrients excreted by the fish, is then circulated through an aquaponic system with the nutrients being used to grow traditional crops, such as lettuce, herbs, and microgreens. This seed grant proposal suggests that the CO2 from the brewing process could be used to grow protein rich algae, which would—in turn—replace the current protein supplement being incorporated into the spent grains to be fed to the tilapia, thereby effectively closing the system. Working with senior students from Chemical Engineering and Architecture/Sustainability, CAER staff evaluated the potential process and concluded that an algae system sized to utilize all of the CO2 emissions from the brewing process would take up half an acre and produce enough protenacious algae meal to scale up FoodChains operations by 100 times.


Engineer and Post Doc Positions Available at UK CAER

clock January 20, 2015 10:13 by author Alice
The following positions are accepting applications from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research:

- Homogeneous Catalysis Postdoctoral Researcher - primary responsibility will be in catalyst development and evaluation
- CO2 Capture Chemical Engineer - primary responsibility will be in chemical looping combustion and gasification technology development and evaluation
- Chemical Looping Combustion Postdoctoral Researcher - primary responsibility will be in chemical looping combustion and gasification technology development and evaluation
- CO2 Capture Solvent Degradation and Analysis PostDoctoral Researcher - s primary responsibility will be in solvent degradation, gas phase emissions monitoring and analytical method development (with a specific focus on nitrosamines and heavy metal)


UK CAER Hosts Local Elementary Students for Annual Energy Fair

clock January 16, 2015 11:35 by author Alice

 

Last month, the UK Center for Applied Energy Research once again hosted its annual Energy Fair. The event brings in classes of 4th and 5th graders from local elementary schools. The students get to meet and interact with scientists and engineers, learn about different forms of energy and how they're used, and participate in hands-on experiments and demonstrations.

Over 250 students attended the fair, which had over a dozen demonstrations from CAER, BCTC, KGS, Bluegrass Energy and other local energy groups.

The full article can be read at UKNow.