UK CAER Current News

The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is one of the University of Kentucky's multidisciplinary research centers. Its energy research provides a focal point for environmental, renewable and fossil fuels research in Kentucky.

CAER Provides Chemistry Demonstrations at SCAPA

clock February 29, 2016 09:25 by author Alice

UK CAER’s Wilson Shafer and Gary Jacobs gave chemistry demonstrations to seventh grade students at Fayette County’s School for the Creative and Performing Arts (SCAPA) of the Bluegrass. The host for the event was Dr. Ashlie Arkwright from Fayette County Schools. Wilson and Gary performed a number of interesting chemical reactions that are used in our everyday lives and showed important links between chemistry and the fine arts. These included combustion and acid-base neutralization (using invisible inks), redox (including plating reactions and showing changes in pigment with oxidation state), and polymerization reactions (used, for example, in making classical guitar strings).



UK CAER Hosts Very Successful Ponded Ash Workshop in Tampa, Florida

clock February 12, 2016 16:38 by author Alice
Engineers, consultants, utility representatives and other scientists in the coal ash industry gathered in Tampa, Florida on February 3 and 4th to attend the workshop on “Current Issues in Ponded CCP’s." The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) co-hosted the 1 1/2 day event that was held in conjunction with ACAA’s annual meeting. Additionally, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was a workshop sponsor and co-organizer.

Expert speakers from the CAER and industry gave technical presentations to a crowd of 192 attendees. Those presentations included:

  • Nature of Ponds, Sediments, Structure of Ponds - by Dr. Robert Jewell, UK CAER
  • The Recovery and Beneficiation of Ponded Fly Ash - by Dr. Tom Robl, UK CAER
  • Slope Stability Considerations under the CCR Rule - by Mr. John Seymour - Geosyntec
  • Progress Report on Seismic Shear Wall Stabilization of Perimeter Dikes and Loose Sand Foundation by Deep Mixing Method (DMM) - Experiences from Ongoing Construction at TVA's Colbert Ash Pond 4 - by Bill Walton, GEI
  • The New Regulatory Regime - The New Rules Summary - by Mr. John Ward, John Ward, Inc
  • Framework for Evaluating the Relative Impacts of Surface Impoundment Closure Options - by Ms. Ari Lewis, Gradient
  • Groundwater Monitoring and Statistical Analysis Under the CCR Rule - by Mr. Bruce Hensel, EPRI
  • Corrective Action at CCP Ponds - by Ken Ladwig, EPRI
  • In-Situ Stabilization/Solidification of Coal Ash Residuals - by Adam Chwalibog, Arcadis U.S., Inc.
  • North Carolina's Unprecedented Scope, Schedule, and Scrutiny: Insights for the Industry - by Dr. John Daniels, UNCC
  • Pond Closures: How to Avoid "Breaking the Bank" - by Mr. Mark Rokoff, AECOM




The UK CAER’s Environmental and Coal Technologies Group investigates all aspects of coal combustion by-product utilization (flyash). As such, it generates information for the transfer of new ideas to benefit the innovative utilization, handling, storage and disposal of CCBs.

The American Coal Ash Association, established in 1968, is a nonprofit trade association devoted to recycling the materials created when we burn coal to generate electricity. Our members comprise the world's foremost experts on coal ash (fly ash and bottom ash), and boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD or "synthetic" gypsum), and other flue gas materials captured by emissions controls.


UK CAER Scientists Publish in CCGP Journal

clock February 12, 2016 13:30 by author Alice
The newest article published in the Coal Combustion and Gasification Products journal is Coal Ash By-Product from Shanxi Province, China, for the Production of Portland-Calcium Sulfoaluminate, written by authors Tristana Y. Duvallet, Thomas L. Robl, and Kevin R. Henke (from UK CAER) as well as Yongmin Zhou, David Harris.

Web Link - Free article download

ABSTRACT: Twenty bulk samples were collected from ponded coal combustion ash in Shanxi Province, China, as part of an investigation of their beneficiation potential. The samples were shipped to the University of Kentucky, where they were chemically analyzed. The samples were highly consistent in chemistry, falling within the ASTM C-618 class F compositional range. The particle size of the ponded ash was relatively coarse, with only, 7% by weight on average, falling below 200 mesh (75mm) particle size. The bulk of the material (80%) was within 50 by 200 mesh (equivalent to 300 by 75mm). X-ray diffraction investigation combined with microscopy indicated that the agglomeration was probably due to the presence of small amounts (i.e.,,3.5%) of gypsum. The utilization potential of the ash was assessed in light of its characteristics and location. The presence of sulfate and relatively high alumina concentration, which averaged, 37%, suggested that it may serve as an important ingredient in the fabrication of a Portland–calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) hybrid cement. Portland-CSA hybrid clinkers were successfully produced from this ponded ash when mixed with hydrated lime, gypsum, fluorite, and bauxite. The raw mixture was fired at 1250u C for 60 minutes twice (sample D) and consisted of approximately 40% alite (C3S), 21% belite (C2S), 3% ferrite (brownmillerite or C4AF), 32% CSA (ye’elimite, Klein’s compound, or C4A3SO3), and no free lime by weight.

2016 The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and the American Coal Ash Association. All rights reserved.

Coal Combustion and Gasification Products is a unique peer-reviewed journal designed specifically to communicate coal ash research and emerging new technologies. CCGP is a joint venture between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA). The organizations' primary goal is to bring together research that currently is published in disparate sources.

CCGP is an international on-line journal encompassing the science and technology of the production, sustainable utilization, and environmentally-sound handling of the byproducts of coal combustion and gasification. This includes fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, gasification residue, and byproducts from coal-fuel blends, flue-gas desulfurization products, and related materials.


Podcast of UK CAER Seminar Speaker - Professor Bittnar

clock December 3, 2015 16:04 by author Alice
Podcast of CAER Seminar Speaker - Professor Bittnar

The University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research has published another podcast for individuals interested in energy issues.

It explored the topic of Validation of Multiscale Model for Heat Generation in Hardening Concreteby Professor Bittnar, Civil Engineering, Fellow of the Engineering Academy - Czech Technical University.

- Podcast and PPT File

Temperature rise in hydrating concrete presents a formidable problem that may lead to significant acceleration of hydration kinetics, early-age cracking, and decreased durability. Multiscale formulation was developed, coupling a cement hydration model on the microscale with the finite element method (FEM) solving heat conduction problem on the macroscale. Although discrete hydration model predicts heat evolution controlled by macroscale temperature, the FEM satisfies heat balance equation during thermal conduction. 2D validations show reasonable temperature agreement with an access to the local quantities, such as a degree of hydration. Here, this multiscale and coupled model is validated against two in situ bridge constructions.



UK CAER Scientist Has Best Paper at IBA Conference

clock November 24, 2015 15:19 by author Alice

Dr. Darrell Taulbee - Research Program Manager and Industrial Support Coordinator, Environmental Remediation and Restoration at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research was awarded the Neil Rice Best Paper Award at the recent IBA conference.

Additionally as the out-going IBA President, Dr. Taulbee received a plaque in recognition of his efforts during his tenure as president of the organization.

The Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration (IBA) held its 34th Biennial Technical Conference in Scottsdale, AZ, November 8th to 11th, 2015. For over 50 years, the IBA has sponsored the premier conference on state-of-the-art agglomeration technology. The papers presented included details of actual operations, as well as theoretical approaches to agglomeration.



Gobble Grease Toss - Cooking Oil into Biofuel

clock November 20, 2015 09:57 by author Alice
From UKNOW: LEXINGTON, Ky. (Nov. 20, 2015) — Fayette County residents who plan to fry a turkey this year for Thanksgiving can recycle used cooking oil in a safe, environmentally friendly manner at the Gobble Grease Toss, sponsored by the city of Lexington, Sayre School, the University of Kentucky’s Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and Bluegrass Greensource. ... The Story Continues ...


Bluegrass GreenSource Teachers Tour the UK CAER

clock November 12, 2015 15:56 by author Alice
Scientists from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research spent the morning talking with fourth grade and junior high teachers from various locations across Kentucky. UK CAER engineers and chemists talked about the various energy projects that are currently being pursued at the Center.



The teachers were part of a professional development program sponsored by Bluegrass GreenSource and DEDI Coal and Energy Education section (DEDI is the Department for Energy Development and Independence part of Kentucky's Energy and Environment Cabinet) of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.


UK CAER Has a New Doctor in the House!

clock November 11, 2015 13:17 by author Alice


Wilson D. Shafer - now Dr. Will - recently earned his Ph.D degree in Chemistry from the University of Kentucky. His dissertation's title is ... "Investigation in the Competitive Partitioning of Dissociated H2 and D2 on Activated Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts." Dr. Burtron Davis, Associate Director of the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's Clean Fuels and Chemical research group, served as adviser.


UK CAER Researchers Explain -- What It Is Like to be Scientist!

clock October 23, 2015 15:43 by author Alice
University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Researchers - David Eaton, Anne Oberlink and Shiela Medina talked to five 4th grade classes at Lexington's Tates Creek Elementary Career Day about what it is like to be a scientist and specifically doing research in the energy industry. They talked about all the forms of energy and how electricity is made from coal. The focus was on what comes out of a power plant; electricity, ash and flue gas.

Anne Oberlink talked about the work of a chemist that develops various types of concrete from flyash. David Eaton talked about making higher value products from coal such as dyes and carbon fiber. (pictured above)


Hower's Honorable Mention Best Poster at Pittsburgh Coal Conference

clock October 14, 2015 09:27 by author Alice
Dr. Jim Hower, UK CAER Scientist/Geologist, was one of the authors of a - Honorable Mention Best Poster - at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference held in Pittsburgh, PA from October 5-8, 2015. The poster was ... A new map of metallurgical coal of the United States with geochemical, rheological, and petrological data. Authors: Trippi, M.H., Ruppert, L.F., Eble, C.F., Hower, J.C.


UK CAER FT Catalyst Scientists Conduct Experiments at Canadian Light Source

clock September 21, 2015 15:10 by author Alice
Dr. Gary Jacobs and Dr. Ramana Pendyala from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's Clean Fuels and Chemicals research group was recently interviewed by Victoria Martinez, the Communications Coordinator at the Canadian Light Source, Inc., in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada while the two scientists were working at the Soft X-ray Microcharacterization Beamline laboratory.
The researchers, in collaboration with Dr. Yongfeng Hu of CLSI, analyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts that had been exposed to common contaminants found in biomass-derived synthesis gas. The soft X-rays allow for an analysis of low energy edges such as sulfur and chlorine, which are common catalyst poisons, as well as potassium, a promoter in iron FT catalysts. Moreover, the beamline is also capable of handling harder X-rays such that iron and cobalt, which are primary FT catalyst metals, can also be characterized.

The XANES technique is used to evaluate electronic properties, while the EXAFS method examines local atomic structure. The project, led by Dr. Burtron H. Davis, UK CAER, and involving his entire team, is focused on utilizing second generation biomass - which does not compete with food production - for the sustainable production of transportation fuels such as diesel and aviation fuels.

More Photos from Canadian Light Source Flicker Account.


UK CAER Carbon Researchers are Active Participants in UK-UL Micro/Nanotechnology National Center

clock September 21, 2015 14:16 by author Alice
The Carbon Materials research group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research is directly involved in a new joint UK-UL $3.76 million dollar grant to create a national center of excellence in micro/nanotechnology. CAER's carbon research will focus on its existing, unique carbon nanotechnologies, which is available to outside users and companies - including its pilot scale continuous synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

LEXINGTON, Ky. (Sept. 21, 2015) — The University of Kentucky and University of Louisville today announced a $3.76 million grant to create a national center of excellence in micro/nanotechnology. The highly competitive grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of just 16 awarded to universities across the country.

The Full UKNOW Story ...


UK CAER Biofuels Research Group Receives DOE Funding for a Transformational Carbon Capture Technology

clock September 21, 2015 14:01 by author Alice

The Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis (BEC) research group’s microalgae-based CO2 capture project was recently selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as one of only 16 projects to receive funding through NETL’s Carbon Capture Program which funds development and testing of transformational carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for new and existing coal-based power plants.  The BEC research group is located at the University of Kentucky’s Center for Applied Energy Research. 

Biological CO2 Use/Conversion

A Microalgae–Based Platform for the Beneficial Reuse of CO2 Emissions from Power Plants

The research team at University of Kentucky Research Foundation (Lexington, KY) – with University of Delaware College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment (Newark, DE) and ALGIX, LLC (Meridian, MS) – will study microalgae-based CO2 capture with conversion of the resulting algal biomass to fuels and bioplastics. Scenedesmus acutus algae will be cultured in an innovative cyclic-flow photobioreactor; the algae will be harvested and dewatered using a University of Kentucky technology based on flocculation (a process where fine particles clump together)/sedimentation/filtration. The project will yield a conceptual design for an algae-based CO2 capture system suitable for integration with a coal-fired power plant. The project will last 24 months.  

Cost: DOE: $990,480; Non DOE: $266,935; Total Funding: $1,257,415

Energy.Gov Website

The Land Report



UK CAER Staffers Recognized as 2015 Lab Inspection Rock Stars!

clock September 10, 2015 10:47 by author Alice

Recently several University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research scientists, technicians and students were recognized for exceptional laboratory safety measures and appreciation for the job well done during recent lab safety inspections.  Parameters included multiple labs with no safety violations. 

Ruthann Chaplin, CAER Safety Officer was happy to celebrate these successes during a recent CAER staff event by wishing congratulations to the following:  (pictured left to right):  Anne Oberlink, Nicholas Linck, Tristana Duvallet, Sarah Edrington, Ashley Morris, Matt, Weisenberger,, Tom Robl; (back row):  John Craddock, John Wiseman, Kevin Henke, Jim Hower; (not pictured):  Dalia Qian, Jordan Burgess, Nik Hochstrasser, Kyle Schutte, Bob Jewell, Ruben Sarabia.

 



UK CAER's Jim Hower Interviewed for Rare Earths Project in PowerSource Magazine

clock August 26, 2015 09:29 by author Alice

The rarest of them all --Could coal ash save your smartphone? Researchers try to find out ...

 

That is the title of the article published in PowerSource which interviewed Dr. James Hower, Petrologist and Scientist at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research.  The following is excerpts taken from the article:

The crux of the matter is that iPhones draw their properties from rare earth elements, a 15-chunk block of lanthanides at the base of the periodic table, plus the metals scandium and yttrium. By 2010, China had cornered nearly 95 percent of the world’s production of rare earths and had begun to choke exports, which caused prices to skyrocket.

Back in his lab at the University of Kentucky, Jim Hower, a geologist, started to see a wave of interest in his research like never before. Mr. Hower has been sampling slabs of Appalachian coal and its waste products and cataloging their rare earth element concentrations for years. Dr. Hower and researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey have done a lot of the cataloging of coal characteristics across the country. Now there seems to be an increased interest in rare earths from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Read the full PowerSource story.

PowerSource is a companion online resource to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and is created in addition to a weekly print section highlighting the region’s diverse energy industry — and putting that news into context.



Congressman Visits UK CAER Algae Demo at Kentucky Power Plant

clock July 24, 2015 10:18 by author Alice
The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) recently demonstrated a pilot scale photobioreactor that converts CO2 in flue gas to algal biomass via photosynthesis to U.S. Congressman Thomas Massie of Kentucky’s 4th Congressional District. (See Congressman Massie’s Facebook post on the visit.) The algae demo is a joint project between UK CAER and Duke Energy’s East Bend Power Station in Boone County, Kentucky.

Members of UK CAER Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis research group were on hand to explain the process and equipment to the Congressman. UK CAER Associate Director Mark Crocker outlined the project’s origins and goals, and summarized the various steps involved in cultivating and harvesting algae, as well as processing algae biomass into useful products.

Ms. Stephanie Kesner, UK CAER, is a biological scientist who takes care of the algae organisms. The project specifically works with microalgae, which are single celled organisms around 5 microns in size. Though they do photosynthesize, though they are not plants. Even though they have moving parts, they are not animals nor bacteria. Algae are in their own taxonomic classification, and are actually one of the fastest growing organism on the planet with the ability to double their mass in a day. The particular species of alga we have in our reactor is called Scenedesmus Acutus, a local freshwater species of microalgae which can withstand pretty harsh environmental conditions while utilizing CO2 from flue gas to photosynthesize and grow.

According to Michael Wilson, UK CAER Engineer and project manager, the cyclic flow photobioreactor was developed at the Center for Applied Energy Research to create an optimum, controlled growth environment for microalgae while minimizing energy consumption required. The reactor is composed of off-the-shelf parts including 8’ long, 3.5 inch diameter clear PETG (coke bottle material) tubes integrated with PVC pipe fittings and arranged to maximize photon collection needed to drive photosynthesis. Flue gas is introduced to the bottom of the tubes and sparged for 20 seconds every minute in order to ensure good mixing for mass transfer and increase CO2 conversion efficiency. Periodically, 6 times per day, the tube banks are drained back to a main feed tank, mixed, and sent back out to the phototube array to continue normal operation. This ‘cyclic’ operation ensures limited exposure to dead zones in the reactor (dark zones, places with suboptimal gas introduction, etc) while also preventing biofilm formation. So far this iteration of photobioreactor has outperformed all before it in terms of operational stability, performance, and biomass productivity. The faster the algae grows, the more CO2 is consumed.

UK CAER group member and engineer Daniel Mohler talked about the field analytical equipment used in mass balance experiments in order to determine CO2and NOx reduction. These molecular species are measured in the gas going into the reactor then measured again in the gas coming out of the reactor, allowing for calculations of CO2 and NOx reduction.

The algae need to be harvested regularly as the culture grows and becomes more dense, thus limiting light penetration according to UK CAER Engineer Jack Groppo. To harvest the algae, roughly 80% of the culture volume is diverted into a thickener where the algae cells are flocculated and settled. Clarified water containing soluble nutrients are decanted from the thickener, sterilized with UV light and recycled back into the system to dilute the remaining 20% of the culture volume for another growth cycle. Settled algae is then filtered for utilization as feedstock for bioplastic manufacture and biofuel production. Other products from algae could include livestock feed (as it can be up to 30% protein); dietary supplements and neutraceuticals since it contains Omega 3 fatty acids and carbohydrates.

The UK CAER team is excited about the future possibilities this project presents in developing algae's unique ability to beneficially re-use greenhouse gas emissions. This technology has the potential to drive economic growth, enable food and energy security, while reducing the impact of industrial emissions.

The UK CAER Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Algae Research Team (L to R): Daniel Mohler, Jack Groppo, Stephanie Kesner, Mike Wilson and Mark Crocker.


UK CAER attends Statewide Wood Energy Team Events

clock July 23, 2015 17:51 by author Alice
Dr. Darrell Taulbee, Industrial Support Coordinator, and Outreach and Technical Assistance Coordinator Greg Copley participated in Kentucky’s Statewide Wood Energy Team (SWET) field trip July 21, 2015. An active timber logging site and a reclaimed surface mine reforestation project were visited. Both sites are in Pike Co. KY. The tours were in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Council of Forest Engineering hosted by the UK Forestry Department. Other participants include bio energy interests, forest managers and state and federal forestry representatives.

Dr. Taulbee, right, with fellow SWET member Bobby Clark of Midwest Clean Energy. Taulbee and Copley have participated in previous events including a tour of RECAST Energy’s biomass boiler in Louisville and the 2014 Bioenergy Day at Murray State University. SWET is an initiative sponsored by the KY Energy and Environment Cabinet.


UK CAER Catalysis Paper is Journal of Catalysis Featured Article

clock July 23, 2015 17:42 by author Alice
A paper authored by scientists from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research group - Clean Fuels and Chemicals - is a Journal of Catalysis Editor-in-Chief's Feature Article.

 

Starting this year, the Journal of Catalysis has decided to select one article each week as Featured Article. These articles will be prominently displayed on the Journal’s homepage (http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-catalysis/featured-articles/) and will be made freely available to the public for 3 months following publication of the respective issue.

 

The paper entitled, "Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Effect of ammonia in syngas on the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis performance of a precipitated iron catalyst" has been selected as one of the four Featured Articles from the June 2015 issue.

 

The authors of the paper include: Wenping Ma, Gary Jacobs, Dennis E. Sparks, Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala, Shelley G. Hopps, Gerald A. Thomas, Hussein H. Hamdeh, Aimee MacLennan, Yongfeng Hu, Burtron H. Davis. (Citation: Journal of Catlysis, Volume 326, June 2015, Pages 149-160).

 



UK CAER Staff Co-authors for Paper Featured in COP Highlights

clock July 23, 2015 17:33 by author Alice
UK CAER Scientist Dr. James C. Hower and Mr. Greg Copley, UK CAER Eastern Kentucky Coordinator are co-authors on a paper that the College of Pharmacy Research Advisory Council selected for the May COP Monthly Publications Highlights.

The paper, "Terfestatins B and C, New p-Terphenyl Glycosides Produced by Streptomyces sp. RM-5-8" was recently published in Organic Letters, 2015, 17 (11), pp.2796-2799, (DOI: 10.1021/asc.orglett.5b01203). Organic Letters is an ACS Publications journal.

"A natural product discovery from a Kentucky coal mine fire site that shows promise in battling alcohol dependence is the UK College of Pharmacy Research Publication Highlight for June 2015." Read the rest of the story ...


UK CAER Projected Mentioned in Power Engineering International Magazine

clock June 12, 2015 08:55 by author Alice
In a March 18, 2015 article from the Power Engineering International Magazine that was entitled "Managing Coal Ash", the University of Kentucky's Rare Earth Elements project was mentioned as a research group that is working to develop the growing area of coal ash use in the extraction of desirable rare earth metals.

Jim Hower and Jack Groppo from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and Dr. Rick Honaker of the UK Mining Engineering department and Cortland Eble at the Kentucky Geological Survey are the scientists working on this project.