UK CAER Current News

The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is one of the University of Kentucky's multidisciplinary research centers. Its energy research provides a focal point for environmental, renewable and fossil fuels research in Kentucky.

CCGP Journal Publishes Morpho-Chemistry and Microstructure of Bottom Ash

clock July 18, 2016 15:00 by author Alice

MORPHO-CHEMISTRY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC CONCENTRATES OF BOTTOM ASH SAMPLES OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS, ODISHA

Author: Subir Kumar Das, from CSIR - Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, India

Abstract: Magnetic particles in silico-aluminous bottom ash samples (NT-BA and HR-BA samples) of two thermal power plants of Talcher area, Odisha, India have been studied for determination of their concentration, morphology, internal structure and phase mineral composition. The amounts of magnetic concentrates in NT-BA and HR-BA samples are 25.7 and 4.03% respectively and the former particles are relatively coarse grained. In NT-BA sample, most of the magnetic particles are ideal solid spheres (ferrosphere) with diverse morphological features: smooth, skeletal, dendritic, octahedral, polygonal, granular, and spotted. The magnetic particles of HR-BA sample are fine grained, irregular to angular, mostly associated with glass matrix

The magnetite crystals occur as fine streaks, laths, lamellae and needles. Examination of the inner structure of the ferrospheres and irregular magnetic particles of concentrates of both the samples revealed that the magnetite crystals have different geometric patterns and association with different mineral phases indicating variations in crystallisation conditions in the combustion chamber. The magnetite crystals of HR-BA sample are extensively martitised. The EDS results indicated that in the magnetite, Fe is the dominant element with small amounts of Mn, Mg, Ca and Ti. These elements occur as diadochic replacement of ferrous ion in the magnetite crystal structure.

The glass coexisting with magnetite has highly variable chemical compositions mainly with respect to Si, Al and Fe; few glass particles are enriched in Fe. Detrital quartz grains are occasionally observed within the magnetic particles. The magnetite oxide crystallites in ferrospheres are derived from the decomposition and oxidation of iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite and clays minerals in feed coal during combustion in the thermal power plants.

The full-text of the paper may be viewed/downloaded at the Coal Combustion and Gasification Products journal website: http://www.coalcgp-journal.org/

The CCGP journal is jointly published by the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA).



UKCAER Researchers Receive Swagelok Training

clock July 15, 2016 10:45 by author Alice
The Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis research group - at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research - hosted Mike Sallee from Swagelok for the 4th annual CAER Swagelok seminar. It focused on how to use tubing and tube fittings appropriately with an emphasis on safety. This seminar is very informational for staff and students alike. Many BEC staff go each time the class is offered because it is a good refresher and something new is learned. Thirteen people were in attendance this year (July 14).



Successful Workshop on Thermal Carbons Hosted at UKCAER

clock July 12, 2016 11:12 by author Alice

The Workshop on Thermal Carbons - hosted by the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in Lexington, Kentucky - boasted of excellent speakers and current, relevant topics such as industrial carbons and fibers, thermoelectrics, heat spreaders, etc. The 1 1/2 day workshop was scheduled prior to the Carbon 2016 Conference and it included a technical poster session, a demo of the UKCAER Carbon Spinline process, a tour of the UKCAER Renewables Laboratory and a reception of the historical UK Spindletop Hall. Speakers included:

  • Dr. Julian Norley, GrafTech International Holdings, Inc. – Industrial Thermal Management Applications for Carbon and Graphite Materials
  • Dr. Dayakar Penumadu, University of Tennessee, Knoxville – Structure-Mechanical Property Relationship for Carbon Fibers
  • Dr. Soeren Koester, Superior Graphite - Graphitized Granular Carbon in PA6 and PPS
  • Dr. Nidia C. Gallego, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Characterizing the Thermal Properties of Carbon Bonded Carbon Fibers (CBCF)
  • Dr. Alexandre Martin, University of Kentucky - Modeling of Ablative Material for Atmospheric Entry Flows
  • Prof. Gajanan Bhat, The University of Tennessee Knoxville - Processing, Structure and Properties of Rayon-Based Carbon Fibers
  • Mr. Keith Roberts, WDI Directorate, AMRDEC - The History of Rayon Replacement for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ablative Materials
  • Dr. Simon Chung, Materials Sciences Corp. - Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials with Integrated Heat Spreaders
  • Dr. David L. Carroll, Wake Forest University - Advances in Carbon Nanotube Thermoelectrics
  • Mr. Ruben Sarabia-Riquelme, University of Kentucky - N-Type Thermoelectric Materials Based on MWCNTs
  • Prof. Joe Brill, University of Kentucky - Inverted Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity of Layered Molecular Organic Semiconductors
  • Prof. Bert Lynn, University of Kentucky - The Chemistry of Whiskeys (Why is Bourbon Different?)
  • Mr. Jarrad Gollihue, University of Kentucky -Current Research and Understanding of Bourbon Whiskey and Its Barrel
  • Dr. Pat Heist, Ferm Solutions - The Science of Making Bourbon




Power Plant Emissions and Mine Reclamation Topics Covered by CCGP Journal

clock June 2, 2016 16:10 by author Alice


Two new papers have just been published on the Coal Combustion and Gasification Products journal:

- Influence of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions Regulations and Consequent Engineering Controls and Coal-Supply Modifications on Fly Ash Chemistry and Petrology: Examples from Kentucky Power Plants - Authors: Madison M. Hood, John G. Groppo, Michelle N. Johnston, James C. Hower, Herek L. Clack, Diego S. de Medeiros, Silvio R. Taffarel, Cesar M.N.L. Cutruneo, Luis F.O. Silva (pp8-18)

- Analysis of Scientific Investigations Related to Reclamation of Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act Permitted Coal Mines with Coal Combustion By-Products - Authors: Kimery C. Vories (pp19-29)

These papers can be read at the CCGP journal Web Address: http://www.coalcgp-journal.org.


UKCAER Graduate Student Presents at MACE Spring Symposium

clock May 24, 2016 14:59 by author Alice
Nicholas W. Linck, graduate student working in the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's Materials research group, recently presented a poster at the MACE 2016 Spring Symposium. MACE is the UK Materials and Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Association located on the University of Kentucky campus.


Spring 2016 Tours at the UKCAER

clock May 24, 2016 14:06 by author Alice

The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research has hosted two recent tours - a group from the Kentucky Geological Survey and a group from the Kentucky Association of Manufacturers organization. Both groups had to dodge a few raindrops but came away from the tour with more insight into the scientific energy research conducted at CAER.

Some of the stops included:

  • Algae Greenhouse (CO2 capture with algae) and Biofuels (fuels, chemicals and other products created from harvested algae)
  • Minerals Processing (utilization of coal ash by-products used to produce UKCAER/Minova's Tekecrete products, use in concrete and other building materials)
  • Carbon Materials processing (creation of carbon fibers used in the automotive and airline industries)
  • Electrochemical Power Sources (creation and/or testing of batteries used in autos, retail products, etc.)
  • Coal/Biomass-to-Liquids Pilot Facility (gasification of CBTL to synthetic fuels)
  • Solar/Organic Materials (creation of new, advanced thin-film technologies from organic compounds).


UK CAER Student Presents at NSBE Annual Convention

clock April 18, 2016 16:29 by author Alice
Courtney McKelphin, and undergraduate chemical engineering major at the University of Kentucky, working at the Center for Applied Energy Research in the Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis lab, presented her research at the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) Annual Convention in Boston, MA on March 25, 2016.

Courtney currently serves as UK's Chapter Vice President of NSBE and has been a member for two years. Her presentation focused on establishing key kinetic parameters of the catalytic decarboxylation/decarbonylation of triglycerides to fuels.



UK CAER, Sayre Co-Host Energy Fair

clock April 13, 2016 15:50 by author Alice
Exploding balloons. A solar car. A virtual reality sandbox. Sounds like a day at the museum, doesn’t it?

The reality: It was the annual University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) Energy Fair on Monday, April 11. Sayre School hosted the event at its C.V. Whitney Gymnasium, which featured more than 330 students from Cassidy, Russell Cave, Sayre and Yates Elementary Schools participating.

Held each year, the UK CAER Energy Fair provides elementary school students in Fayette County a hands-on, interactive introduction to science, engineering and research. Students learn about various energy-related topics including electricity, mining, biofuels, motors, solar panels, and electromagnets. In addition, students had the opportunity to learn about creating a sustainable energy future for the Commonwealth.

In addition to CAER, presenters included the UK Chapter of the Society of Mining Engineers, Bluegrass GreenSource, UK’s Solar Decathlon team, Sayre Middle School Green Team, and the Kentucky Division of Air Quality, among others.



Environmental Class Tour of UK CAER

clock April 8, 2016 08:51 by author Alice

An environmental lab class under the direction of Dr. David Fraley of Georgetown College toured the University of Kentucky Lab 2, Carbon Spinline and Algae Greenhouse.



UK CAER Takes Safety Seriously

clock April 7, 2016 09:24 by author Alice

A group of University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research scientists, engineers and support staff participated in a First Aid, CPR and AED training class. Ruthann Chaplin, an instructor with the National Safety Council, took the participants through many situations and scenarios, teaching ways to identify and assist in fostering a positive outcome. The class learned about various first responder topics and how to relate them to day to day situations either happened upon, simple accidents, or those events that are life threatening.

According to organizer and instructor Ruthann Chaplin, UK CAER Safety Officer “Having the knowledge and knowing how to react in situations, can mean the difference between life and death for someone in need”.



UK CAER High School Students Wins Prestigious Army Award at Ky State Science Fair

clock April 1, 2016 13:26 by author Alice
Ashley Liu, a student from the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, won the prestigious Army Award at the Kentucky State Science Fair, March 2016. The research project was based upon her studies on water treatment technology completed at the Center for Applied Energy Research's Power Generation research group. The center is located at the University of Kentucky.



Ashley Liu presented a poster at the Kentucky State Science Fair 2016 at the Eastern Kentucky University.


UK CAER's Tekecrete Featured at First Defense Expo

clock April 1, 2016 12:55 by author Alice

A new technology developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and Minova's North American headquarters in Georgetown, Kentucky was exhibited at the FDX 2016 First Defense Expo in Louisville in mid-March 2016. CAER and Minova scientists reached out to the first responder community by discussing Tekcrete Fast. This product/process allows a fiber-reinforced, high-strength, ultra-rapid setting concrete to be applied for almost immediate stabilization of damaged buildings and other damaged concrete infrastructure. The process can be sent into the location immediately and be used at a safe distance.

The Tekcrete Fast technology used the construction technique called shotcrete and is applied at high velocity that also facilitates adherence to various construction surfaces. A slightly different formulation, Tekcrete Fast M, is used in underground applications to almost instantly stabilize dangerous mining conditions, contributing to mine safety.

The research and joint patent leading to the Minova license came about when UK CAER partnered with Minova on a project for the National Institute of Hometown Security (NIHS), located in Somerset, Kentucky.



Ohio Valley Organic Petrographers Meeting

clock April 1, 2016 11:20 by author Alice


Organic petrographers from the Ohio Valley area representing various universities met on March 31, 2016 at the Kentucky Geological Survey in Henderson, Kentucky.

Dr. Jim Hower of the UK Center for Applied Energy Research (center, back row) participated in the meeting to discuss various organic petrology of coals and carbonaceous shales topics.


UK CAER Reaches Out to Math "Athletes"

clock April 1, 2016 10:52 by author Alice

 

Biofuels is the name of the game! Three University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research staffers - Scientist, Dr. Jack Groppo; Engineer, Ms. Shiela Medina; and Ms. Alice Marksberry - participated in the UK hosted 2016 MathCounts competition. On a Friday night in March, nearly 200 Mathcounts winners from middle schools in counties throughout the Commonwealth participated in fun science experiments with UK faculty, staff and students.

 

The UK CAER hosted an educational stop that featured the Biofuels Game - a board game created by CAER scientist Dr. Eduardo Santillian-Jimenez. The game reflects decisions made by the students that must compare and contrast the pathway of creating a gasoline/diesel product from either crude petroleum or biomass. Students must consider how to create the end product via economical and environmentally sound decision-making processes.

 

Mathcounts is a national enrichment, coaching and competition program that promotes middle school math achievement through grassroots involvement.


Graffin Lecturer Discusses "This Ubiqutuos Carbon" at a UK CAER Seminar

clock March 4, 2016 09:58 by author Alice
This ubiqutuos carbon... was an interesting topic presented by Dr. Cristian Contescu, Senior Research Staff, Materials Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at a recent University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Seminar held on March 2, 2016.



After Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, and after the Silicon Age of the informational revolution, the technologies of 21st century are marked by the ubiqutuous presence of various forms of carbon allotropes. For long time, diamond and graphite were the only known carbon allotropes, but that has changed with the serendipous discovery of fullerences, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Every ten or fifteen years scientists unveil new forms of carbons with new and perplexing properties, while computations suggest that the carbon’s family still has members unknown to us today. At a dramatically accelerated pace, new carbon allotrope forms find their place at the leading edge of scientific and technological innovations. At the same time traditional forms of carbon are being used in new and exciting applications that make our life safer, healthier, and more enjoyable. The 21st century may soon be recognized as the Age of Carbon forms.

This educational talk emphasized the role that carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the Galaxy and the basis of life on Earth, was the engine of most important technological developments throughout the history of civilization. The talk will emphasize carbon’s strong ability, as an element, to generate a variety of allotropic forms and to enter in a multitude of combinations with itself and with many other chemical elements. These properties have placed carbon at the core of numerous inventions that define out civilization, while emerging new technologies open a rich path for value-added products in today’s market. The potential of new (and traditional) carbon allotropes for development of new applications in nanotechnologies and nanocomposites, energy storage and conversion, gas separation, storage and sequestration, health management and drug delivery, defense and national security, aeronautics and astronautics, basic sciences and life sciences is still not fully explored and demands more basic and applied research. Today’s carbon science and technology offers a broad range of opportunities for the young generation of students, engineers and scientists.


UK College of Design Students Tour CAER's Energy Efficient Lab Building

clock March 3, 2016 13:28 by author Alice
UK College of Design Students in the Interior Design area toured the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's laboratory 2 - Renewable Energy Lab on March 2, 2016. The students toured the solar and battery areas and heard details about the building's energy efficiency features from Courtney Fisk, UK CAER Assistant Director for Facilities and Operations. Courtney was the engineer that oversaw the construction of lab 2. Eduardo Santillan-Jimenz, UK CAER Biofuels Scientist, presented information/toured the Biofuels labs housed within the building. The CoD students are working on a Sustainability grant jointly received by UK CAER, Colleges of Design and Education to develop a biofuels video game from the board game version created by Dr. Santillian-Jimenz.


CAER Provides Chemistry Demonstrations at SCAPA

clock February 29, 2016 09:25 by author Alice

UK CAER’s Wilson Shafer and Gary Jacobs gave chemistry demonstrations to seventh grade students at Fayette County’s School for the Creative and Performing Arts (SCAPA) of the Bluegrass. The host for the event was Dr. Ashlie Arkwright from Fayette County Schools. Wilson and Gary performed a number of interesting chemical reactions that are used in our everyday lives and showed important links between chemistry and the fine arts. These included combustion and acid-base neutralization (using invisible inks), redox (including plating reactions and showing changes in pigment with oxidation state), and polymerization reactions (used, for example, in making classical guitar strings).



UK CAER Hosts Very Successful Ponded Ash Workshop in Tampa, Florida

clock February 12, 2016 16:38 by author Alice
Engineers, consultants, utility representatives and other scientists in the coal ash industry gathered in Tampa, Florida on February 3 and 4th to attend the workshop on “Current Issues in Ponded CCP’s." The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) co-hosted the 1 1/2 day event that was held in conjunction with ACAA’s annual meeting. Additionally, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was a workshop sponsor and co-organizer.

Expert speakers from the CAER and industry gave technical presentations to a crowd of 192 attendees. Those presentations included:

  • Nature of Ponds, Sediments, Structure of Ponds - by Dr. Robert Jewell, UK CAER
  • The Recovery and Beneficiation of Ponded Fly Ash - by Dr. Tom Robl, UK CAER
  • Slope Stability Considerations under the CCR Rule - by Mr. John Seymour - Geosyntec
  • Progress Report on Seismic Shear Wall Stabilization of Perimeter Dikes and Loose Sand Foundation by Deep Mixing Method (DMM) - Experiences from Ongoing Construction at TVA's Colbert Ash Pond 4 - by Bill Walton, GEI
  • The New Regulatory Regime - The New Rules Summary - by Mr. John Ward, John Ward, Inc
  • Framework for Evaluating the Relative Impacts of Surface Impoundment Closure Options - by Ms. Ari Lewis, Gradient
  • Groundwater Monitoring and Statistical Analysis Under the CCR Rule - by Mr. Bruce Hensel, EPRI
  • Corrective Action at CCP Ponds - by Ken Ladwig, EPRI
  • In-Situ Stabilization/Solidification of Coal Ash Residuals - by Adam Chwalibog, Arcadis U.S., Inc.
  • North Carolina's Unprecedented Scope, Schedule, and Scrutiny: Insights for the Industry - by Dr. John Daniels, UNCC
  • Pond Closures: How to Avoid "Breaking the Bank" - by Mr. Mark Rokoff, AECOM




The UK CAER’s Environmental and Coal Technologies Group investigates all aspects of coal combustion by-product utilization (flyash). As such, it generates information for the transfer of new ideas to benefit the innovative utilization, handling, storage and disposal of CCBs.

The American Coal Ash Association, established in 1968, is a nonprofit trade association devoted to recycling the materials created when we burn coal to generate electricity. Our members comprise the world's foremost experts on coal ash (fly ash and bottom ash), and boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD or "synthetic" gypsum), and other flue gas materials captured by emissions controls.


UK CAER Scientists Publish in CCGP Journal

clock February 12, 2016 13:30 by author Alice
The newest article published in the Coal Combustion and Gasification Products journal is Coal Ash By-Product from Shanxi Province, China, for the Production of Portland-Calcium Sulfoaluminate, written by authors Tristana Y. Duvallet, Thomas L. Robl, and Kevin R. Henke (from UK CAER) as well as Yongmin Zhou, David Harris.

Web Link - Free article download

ABSTRACT: Twenty bulk samples were collected from ponded coal combustion ash in Shanxi Province, China, as part of an investigation of their beneficiation potential. The samples were shipped to the University of Kentucky, where they were chemically analyzed. The samples were highly consistent in chemistry, falling within the ASTM C-618 class F compositional range. The particle size of the ponded ash was relatively coarse, with only, 7% by weight on average, falling below 200 mesh (75mm) particle size. The bulk of the material (80%) was within 50 by 200 mesh (equivalent to 300 by 75mm). X-ray diffraction investigation combined with microscopy indicated that the agglomeration was probably due to the presence of small amounts (i.e.,,3.5%) of gypsum. The utilization potential of the ash was assessed in light of its characteristics and location. The presence of sulfate and relatively high alumina concentration, which averaged, 37%, suggested that it may serve as an important ingredient in the fabrication of a Portland–calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) hybrid cement. Portland-CSA hybrid clinkers were successfully produced from this ponded ash when mixed with hydrated lime, gypsum, fluorite, and bauxite. The raw mixture was fired at 1250u C for 60 minutes twice (sample D) and consisted of approximately 40% alite (C3S), 21% belite (C2S), 3% ferrite (brownmillerite or C4AF), 32% CSA (ye’elimite, Klein’s compound, or C4A3SO3), and no free lime by weight.

2016 The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and the American Coal Ash Association. All rights reserved.

Coal Combustion and Gasification Products is a unique peer-reviewed journal designed specifically to communicate coal ash research and emerging new technologies. CCGP is a joint venture between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA). The organizations' primary goal is to bring together research that currently is published in disparate sources.

CCGP is an international on-line journal encompassing the science and technology of the production, sustainable utilization, and environmentally-sound handling of the byproducts of coal combustion and gasification. This includes fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, gasification residue, and byproducts from coal-fuel blends, flue-gas desulfurization products, and related materials.


Podcast of UK CAER Seminar Speaker - Professor Bittnar

clock December 3, 2015 16:04 by author Alice
Podcast of CAER Seminar Speaker - Professor Bittnar

The University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research has published another podcast for individuals interested in energy issues.

It explored the topic of Validation of Multiscale Model for Heat Generation in Hardening Concreteby Professor Bittnar, Civil Engineering, Fellow of the Engineering Academy - Czech Technical University.

- Podcast and PPT File

Temperature rise in hydrating concrete presents a formidable problem that may lead to significant acceleration of hydration kinetics, early-age cracking, and decreased durability. Multiscale formulation was developed, coupling a cement hydration model on the microscale with the finite element method (FEM) solving heat conduction problem on the macroscale. Although discrete hydration model predicts heat evolution controlled by macroscale temperature, the FEM satisfies heat balance equation during thermal conduction. 2D validations show reasonable temperature agreement with an access to the local quantities, such as a degree of hydration. Here, this multiscale and coupled model is validated against two in situ bridge constructions.