UK CAER Current News

The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is one of the University of Kentucky's multidisciplinary research centers. Its energy research provides a focal point for environmental, renewable and fossil fuels research in Kentucky.

UK CAER Students Take a "Green" Turn with Algae

clock August 20, 2014 11:01 by author Alice
Engineers normally get their hands dirty … but green? Ask any of the five UK students working with the Center for Applied Energy Research Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis group and you might get a surprising answer. They are all part of a student team from the University of Kentucky Engineering Department and the College of Design that have been working on design issues associated with the CAER algal-based carbon capture and utilization demonstration project based at Duke’s East Bend power plant located in Northern Kentucky.

In an effort to drive down capital and operating costs the CAER “outsourced” the design problems to this group of students to see what could be developed, with the end result to be working prototypes or models that could be incorporated into the Center’s day-to-day carbon utilization research.

The students were recently on-hand during a Channel 12 News interview of Michael H. Wilson, UK CAER Senior Research Engineer. Each created a poster focusing on their specific project highlighting what aspect of the process needed work and a solution of how to resolve that problem.

Katelyn Yohe, UK Electrical Engineering Senior - UK CAER Duke Algae Demo Katelyn Yohe, UK Electrical Engineering SeniorLow Cost Control System - (Poster) - A low cost control system was developed to control the input of carbon dioxide, as flue gas, and air in a photobioreactor in order to maintain healthy algae growth conditions. The system regulates pH and dissolved oxygen based on parameters set by the user. Live, weekly, stored data, and setting parameters can all be viewed and changed on a network computer through the web or through the on-board LCD. Based on the current system used, this new prototype is roughly an eighty-seven percent reduction of cost.

Landon Caudill, UK Mechanical Engineering Junior - UK CAER Duke Algae Demo Landon Caudill, UK Mechanical Engineering JuniorAlgae Harvest and Processing – (Poster) - I focused on how to improve the efficiency of our low-cost/low energy harvesting and dewatering process. In order to recover algal byproducts a low dosage (3-5 ppm) of chemical flocculent is added as the algae is pumped into a setting column. After 20 minutes the biomass has settled to the bottom of a small diameter and conical base to allow most (>95%) of the water to be decanted and recycled to the growth system. The thickened biomass is then transferred to a gravity dewatering belt and then to a solar drier to complete the low-cost/low-energy method of algae biomass recovery. These improvements have made the processing of harvested algae more efficient and consistent.

Chase M. Cecil, UK Chemical Engineering Senior - UK CAER Duke Algae Demo Chase M. Cecil, UK Chemical Engineering Senior - Optimizing Carbon Input to Maximize Efficiency – (Poster) - My work focused on modeling the CO2 utilization efficiency of the photobioreactor system. The model determined a CO2 input regimen that optimized the CO2 usage and maximized the efficiency of the reactor system. This method also highlighted the most important factors to improve the performance and efficiency of the system moving forward.

Thomas E. Grubbs, UK Architecture Senior - UK CAER Duke Algae Demo Thomas E. Grubbs, UK Architecture SeniorDesign, Development, and Documentation – (Poster) – My role at CAER has been primarily on the documentation side of the photobioreactor design process. I was brought aboard to lend a designer’s perspective to the work being carried at out at the Center, specifically the algae project. To that end, I have worked on the design and development of the PBR tube cleaning ‘pigs’, including the use of a CO2 laser cutting system in order to optimize pig construction, as well as the East Bend PBR.

Travis Jarrells, UK Chemical Engineering Junior - UK CAER Duke Algae Demo Travis Jarrells, UK Chemical Engineering JuniorCarbon Dioxide Compression Model – (Poster) – My work focused on the introduction of carbon dioxide, as flue gas, to the photobioreactor system. Different methods such as compression and bubbling and using eductors were compared based on an energy consumption basis. I also worked on improving smaller (8 liter) airlift reactors for use in the greenhouse. Improvements made include air introduction, as well as changes in geometry to improve longevity and maintenance.

The UK CAER has a long history of offering experiential learning opportunities to undergraduate engineering and science students in areas including: biofuels, carbon materials, carbon capture, industrial byproduct beneficiation, batteries, solar, and catalysis. The students get an opportunity to work on real world problems and apply the lessons they learn in their coursework to immediately reinforce their learning, often in a hands-on-manner. Michael Wilson sums it up by saying, “Working with these students has been a great experience. Although the experience they are getting is undoubtedly valuable, I’m not sure we can repay them for the amounts of enthusiasm and creativity they bring to the table. I am continually impressed with the level of talent present at the University of Kentucky”. With opportunities like these, the contributions that undergraduate researchers can make will only continue and ultimately contribute to the vitality of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

*Follow up questions can be directed to Michael.Wilson@uky.edu or alice.marksberry@uky.edu


UK CAER Algae "Put to Work" - Channel 12 Newscast

clock August 18, 2014 10:34 by author Alice


UK CAER's very own engineer, Mike Wilson, was recently interviewed by Josh Knight of Channel 12 News about how a CAER experimental algae demonstration unit at the Duke Energy East Bend power plant can reduce carbon emissions. The University of Kentucky CAER and Duke Energy have partnered on this project to capture flue gas, which is ten percent CO2 (carbon dioxide) from the plant in order to grow algae in a tube display.

At this time, the amount of gas being processed by the algae is a small amount that is sent out the stack but this pilot project proves that the system is functional and has definite possibilities. Per Mike Wilson, "They call it research for a reason, there's "re" in research, so you're going to do it over and over again until you find a way that works".

With continued research and efficiencies improvement, the project investigators and Duke would like to scale up the project to utilize all the flue gas which would result in tube arrays covering hundreds of acres. Potentially covering square miles with algae tubes is due to the growth factor of this Kentucky algae - microscopic organisms that grow and make food using carbon dioxide, sunlight and water through photosynthesis. Algae biomass can be used to make anything from biofuel to bio-plastics, foods and pharmaceuticals.

Watch the video and read more at Local 12 News site.


Ky NSF EPSCoR Program Receives Major Track 1 Funding from National Science Foundation

clock August 12, 2014 10:51 by author Alice

The Kentucky NSF EPSCoR received a Research Infrastructure Improvement (RII) Track-1 award from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). The Kentucky track 1 award is generally an energy-related theme that will provide funding to various Kentucky universities and colleges to do research in the fields of electrochemical energy storage; study of membranes; and chemical inspired biology/lignin research. Rodney Andrews, UK CAER Director, is the Ky NSF EPSCoR Director.

From UKNOW News:

Kentucky faces significant challenges as the energy economy transitions from traditional coal mining to renewable resources. Kentucky's RII award, "Powering the Kentucky Bioeconomy for a Sustainable Future," will focus on bio-inspired nanocomposite membranes, biomass feedstocks and electrochemical energy storage. The project will drive and accelerate the growth of the emerging bioeconomy within Kentucky through statewide multi-institutional interdisciplinary collaborations that incorporate elements of chemistry, biology, physics and engineering. Strong ties between academic research and industry will confront the Green Grand Challenge, help train students and create jobs for an increasingly larger and diverse science, technology, engineering and mathematics educated workforce. The project provides a STEM-based educational framework that will encourage meaningful participation of under-represented and minority student populations in the emerging knowledge-based economy. Kentucky — University of Kentucky Research Foundation, PI: Rodney Andrews. More ...



Members of Utilities Services Tour UK CAER

clock August 5, 2014 18:00 by author Alice


The East Kentucky Power Cooperative DSM steering committee met recently on the UK CAER energy campus and afterwards took a tour around the CAER energy labs including stops in the renewables building including the solar and biofuels research groups. Additionally they reviewed carbon materials lab; minerals/environmental lab; greenhouse; and the power generation unit . The DSM members include members in the distribution co-ops that deal directly with electric consumers.


UK CAER's Research is Used in KY's First Megawatt-Scale Carbon Capture Pilot Unit

clock July 21, 2014 14:32 by author Alice

Gov. Steve Beshear (fifth from right) cut the ribbon to begin construction of Kentucky's first megawatt-scale carbon capture pilot unit at an operating power plant located at Kentucky Utilities Company’s E.W. Brown Generating Station, near Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Also pictured, (extreme left) Dr. Kunlei Liu, CAER Director of Research; (to right of Governor) UK President Eli Capilouto and (extreme right) Dr. Rodney Andrews, CAER Director.

A news conference and ribbon cutting on the grounds of the unit was held this morning with Gov. Steve Beshear, Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet Secretary Len Peters, LG&E and KU Energy Chairman, CEO and President Victor Staffieri, University of Kentucky President Eli Capilouto, and other dignitaries and industrial partners in attendance. The $19.5 million project with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research is made possible through ... rest of story from UKNOW.


UKNOW HIghlights CAER - China Carbon Capture Collaboration

clock July 15, 2014 13:06 by author Alice
According to a story on UKNOW: LEXINGTON, Ky. (July 15. 2014) — The University of Kentucky has entered into an agreement with a major Chinese petrochemical conglomerate to develop technologies to capture, utilize and store 1 million tons of carbon dioxide per year from a coal-fired power plant in Dongying, Shandong, China.

The agreement, between UK's Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Sinopec Corporation's Shengli Oilfield Company and Petroleum Engineering Construction Corporation, is a project of the joint U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) as part of its Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage (CCUS) initiative. Preliminary work on the project began in 2012, and work is scheduled to continue through 2017.

More ...


UK CAER's Jim Hower is Interviewed by WLEX18

clock July 15, 2014 10:38 by author Alice
Dr. Jim Hower, UK CAER Geologist/Scientist and Dr. Jen O'Keefe, Geologist/Scientist at Morehead State University were interviewed by WLEX 18 for Mystery Monday: Mystery Of Underground Coal Fires.

From WLEX: Scientists say there are at least 30 underground coal fires in Eastern Kentucky, mostly in old abandoned mines. One of these burns under Highway 80 in Perry County. It's known as the Ruth Mullins fire and scientists are concerned that most people don't know how dangerous these fires can be.

Watch the video.



KY Organic Electronic Materials Symposium is a Success!

clock July 11, 2014 16:01 by author Alice
The Kentucky Organic Electronic Materials Symposium - An Introduction to Materials and Applications was organized by Dr. John Anthony, long-time CAER faculty associate, and hosted at the UK CAER Spindletop facility, and was a definite hit among the symposium's 40+ attendees. The KY NSF-EPSCoR provided funding for the majority of the symposium costs and provided travel funds for attendees from EPSCoR states which helps to build future EPSCoR research collaborations.

Symposium Summary: Progress in the development of new functional organic materials has accelerated in recent years, leading to a host of design rules for a variety of applications that are not necessarily enumerated in current chemical literature. This Symposium is designed to introduce researchers from EPSCoR states to the latest in organic electronics materials design and characterization, as well as present the current state-of-the-art in the performance of polymeric, blended, and pure small-molecule semiconductors in applications such as photovoltaics, thin-film transistors, sensors and other applications. A corresponding poster session and ample discussion opportunities will help build links between EPSCoR researchers with complementary research interests.

More Symposium Information.


Editors of Nature Ask John Anthony to Highlight Progress in Organic Electronics

clock July 11, 2014 15:53 by author Alice
Nature, the prestigious international weekly journal of science, recently asked Dr. John Anthony, UK Professor with solar lab facilities located at the CAER, to "highlight" progress in organic electronics within a set of papers given at a recent Materials Research Society session. The article's title is "Organic electronics: Addressing challenges". A short blurb from the Nature website:

Although promising, the use of organic semiconductors has not yet revolutionized consumer electronics. Synthesis of high-performance materials, enhanced control of morphology and smart exploitation of unique photophysical phenomena are the way forward to overcome the technological hurdles of this field.

It is now available online.



The ASER Summary: Community Engagement at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

clock July 11, 2014 15:43 by author Alice
The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducts environmental monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and releases an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). Although available to the public, the ASER is developed for site managers and DOE Headquarters. This year, under the guidance of UK CAER’s Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and the Environment (KRCEE), Marshall County High School AP Environmental Science will summarize what they have learned about the PGDP ASER. The goal is to educate local students about the operations and cleanup activities at the PGDP and communicate the students’ new knowledge to the public.

Leading up to the PGDP tour, DOE Program Manager, Tracey Duncan, and KRCEE Principle Investigators, Steve Hampson and Dr. Richard Hallbrook gave lectures on the history and environmental challenges of the PGDP. On May 13th, members of KRCEE, Marshall County students and staff were given a DOE guided tour of the PGDP.

 

Afterwards, the group assembled at the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA) lodge to experience a presentation with live specimens by Dr. Steven Price, UK, Dept. of Forestry. The group then toured the WKWMA as Tim Kreher, Kentucky Wildlife Biologist, explained ecological considerations, use and management at the WKWMA.


UK CAER Scientists Collaborate with UK Engineering Capstone Senior Design Teams

clock July 11, 2014 15:00 by author Alice
The UK Center for Applied Energy Research, a non-degree granting UK energy research center, strives to provide and work with students via various experiential learning opportunities. For the past four years, the CAER's biofuels engineers have been working closely with the Mechanical Engineering's Capstone Senior Design project. The capstone project is a one-semester course within the UK College of Engineering college taken by students in their senior year. The students are divided into teams and the additional time allows for more comprehensive projects to be completed. This is where the CAER comes into the picture.

 

In an effort to drive down capital costs associated with algal-based carbon capture and utilization, the CAER "outsourced" design problems to the capstone student-based project teams so they could "dig a little deeper" to see what could be developed, with the end result to be working prototypes that could be incorporated into the Center's day-to-day biofuels research. In addition to campus work, the students worked about 10 hours per week at the Center to build their prototypes.

 

With input from the research staff at CAER, an electrical engineering (EE) team was tasked with developing a low cost control system while the mechanical design (ME) team was focused on reducing costs of the photobioreactor support frame.

 

Both student teams completed critical design reviews for their project, finalized their designs, and moved into the prototyping phase. The ME team met with a VERY aggressive cost reduction on the photobioreactor while the EE team was tasked with designing, building, and testing a control system capable of growing algae. "The end result is really cool", states Mike Wilson, CAER Biofuels Engineer, "because now the Center will be able to build and deliver a complete low-cost system to other research groups/companies".

 

Mike went on to say, "Put simply, we get professional engineering consulting for almost free, a working prototype of needed equipment, and the students get access to a modest budget (~$1000) for prototyping as well as a clearer picture of what goes on here at the Center. Getting to work with CAER researchers like Roger Perrone, Jack Groppo, Nick Rhea and myself gives them a unique experience that the other teams simply don’t get."

 

2014 EE team: George Villanueva, Cassie Cox, Chase Adams, Katelyn Yohe, Supreme Aryal

 

2014 ME team: Nathan Richardson, Tyler Craddock, Aaron Bottoms, David Trembula, Alison Dixon

 



STEM CAMP 2014 Rocks ... Bounces, Clanks, Gurgles ... at UK CAER

clock June 30, 2014 15:03 by author Alice
UK CAER hosted 144 eager, young, potential scientists - incoming 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th graders - at the Spindletop Energy campus on June 24 and 25, 2014. The students were participating in the See Blue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Camp being held at the University of Kentucky. The week-long day camp is designed to help students explore and integrate the STEM disciplines through authentic hands-on projects and real world applications.

These potentially future engineers, geologists and chemists spent the day at CAER involved in rotating between six hands-on experiments, demos and activities generally related to energy. The stops included (see below picture, left to right):

  • Jeanne Hartinger, CAER Staff: Students used engineering concepts to create balloons to compete for the highest bounce by using any of the various materials provided (rubber bands, tape, paper clips, washers) to make the balloon the correct shape, weight, diameter, or mass.
  • Jack Groppo, CAER Engineer: Students learned the basic concepts for water treatment (flocculation) by adding chemicals to suspensions of fine particles to cause rapid settling and produce clear water for recycling.
  • Mike Wilson, CAER Engineer: An outdoors "Energy Walk" combined physical activity with experiential learning by clarifying how much energy it takes to use various household electrical appliances in a typical home.
  • Robert Pace, CAER Scientist: A look at the energy dashboard of the CAER's renewable energy lab was part of the Newton's Cradle activity which utilizes a device that demonstrates conservation of momentum and energy via a series of swinging spheres.
  • Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez, CAER Scientist: The fossil fuels and biofuels race taught kids about the conversion of different starting materials – such as biomass and petroleum – to fuel, while at the same time making them aware of the economic and environmental costs associated with these transformations.
  • Anne Oberlink, CAER Scientist: A visit to the CAER minerals laboratory provided children a hands-on experience utilizing cement, and learning about coal ash, an energy-related by-product, to create a personalized paving stone.


John Anthony's Organic Letters Paper is an ACS Editors' Choice Selection

clock June 30, 2014 14:18 by author Alice
UK Professor John Anthony, a longtime CAER collaborator whose labs are located at the Center, has been selected to be featured in ACS Editors' Choice, in addition to be published in Organic Letters journal. The American Chemical Society's ACS Editors' Choice is a new initiative wherein, based on recommendations from Editors, one article from across the portfolio is selected each day of the year and upon publication is made immediately available as open access sponsored by ACS Publications. ACS Editors' Choice articles aim to exemplify the Society's commitment to improving people's lives through the transforming power of chemistry.

Dr. Anthony's manuscript is titled, "Synthesis and Optical Properties of Dioxolane-Functionalized Hexacenes and Heptacenes". Less than 1% of articles published in an ACS journal are selected for the ACS Editor's Choice.


UK CAER's Fisk Attends Ky Green Building Summit

clock June 30, 2014 13:40 by author Alice
Courtney Fisk, Assistant Director for UK CAER's Facilities and Operations recently attended the first Kentucky Green Building Leadership Summit, Market Transformation for our Built Environment. Rick Fedriozzi, president, CEO and founding chairman of the USGBC was the keynote speaker. The summit highlighted Kentucky businesses that are leaders in green building, and the important environmental, economic and social impact they have at a global, state and local level.

Courtney was the project engineer of the UK CAER's 43,000 square foot high-performance renewable energy laboratory that open in mid-2012. The laboratory building design target was a 50 percent reduction in energy usage compared to similar facilities. The final percentage is 54 percent. It is targeted to be LEED gold certified.


WUKY Radio Does Story about Coal Fires which includes UK CAER Jim Hower and Greg Copley

clock June 30, 2014 11:50 by author Alice
WUKY NPR @91.3 recently broadcasted a story about "WHAT LIES BENEATH: Researchers Turning Attention to Underground Coal Fires".

 

The story discusses how coal fires can start and how researchers at the UK Center for Applied Energy Research are gathering information on such fires in Kentucky. Some of the coal fires in the US have been burning for decades and they're tough to put out.

 

Jim Hower has been investigating these fires since 2007 and says that conditions like amount of smoke and ground temperatures change from one visit to the next. A number of things can start the fires, from forest and grassland fires igniting exposed coal beds, to arson, … even spontaneous ignition under some conditions. According to Hower, thousands of uncontrolled coal fires are burning beneath the surface around the world.

 

Go to the WUKY website to listen to this coal fires story.


Online Text book Written by CAER's Graham, Jacobs and Davis

clock June 30, 2014 11:10 by author Alice
The online book ‘Practical Electron Microscopy and Database,’ a reference for TEM and SEM operators, engineers, technicians, managers, researchers and students uses TEM/EELS data and figures generated and published by Graham, Jacobs and Davis. For more information, check out the online book page.



UKNOW's CAER 101 Article and UK REVEAL Video

clock June 4, 2014 15:18 by author Alice
UK Scientists Energize Lessons for Local Fourth Graders - UKNow Campus Article - The "CAER 101" education program, which UK's Center for Applied Energy Research started 12 years ago in partnership with Russell Cave Elementary School, was expanded this year to include Liberty and Yates elementary schools as well. More ...

 

UK CAER Scientists making their contribution to the education mission of the University of Kentucky includes Jack Groppo, Ashley Morris, Mike Wilson, Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez, Robby Pace, Anne Oberlink, Bob Jewell, Lisa Richburg, and Andy Placido. They developed a dynamic education program for the 4th graders at three Lexington local elementary schools. The scientists along with Marybeth McAlister (and later Alice Marksberry) worked with the scientists and teachers in developing the education modules and spending time with those inquiring young minds.

 

Marybeth, the CAER communications manager, developed the initial educational outreach program efforts over 10 years ago at the Russell Cave School. In January 2014, she died unexpectedly and the CAER and FCPS teachers have continued with the project in part as a tribute to her.

 



Research by Fulbright Scholar Completed while at UK CAER Wins Major Award

clock June 4, 2014 13:46 by author Alice
Thani Jermwongratanachai, previously a graduate student at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, has won the best oral presentation award at the RGJ - Ph.D. Congress XIV held at the Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort in Pattaya, Thailand. Ph.D students present at the RGJ conference at the end of their educational program. The title of Thani's talk was “A Comparison between Pt and Ag as Metal Promoters for Co/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyst”.

 

Thani Jermwongratanachai, previously a graduate student at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, has won the best oral presentation award at the RGJ - Ph.D. Congress XIV held at the Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort in Pattaya, Thailand. Ph.D students present at the RGJ conference at the end of their educational program. The title of Thani's talk was “A Comparison between Pt and Ag as Metal Promoters for Co/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyst”.

 

 

Thani was part of the Royal Golden Jubilee (RGJ) program of Thailand project which aims to produce 5,000 Ph.D. graduates in as few as 15 years when it was realized in the last two decades that one of the serious causes for the social and economic weakness of Thailand was the severe shortage of highly qualified human resources especially in the field of science and technology. Because of its merit, the project was also proclaimed one of the programs to commemorate H.M. the King's Golden Jubilee year of reign.

 

The work that was presented was completed at CAER during the summer of 2013. His advisers were Boonyarach Kitiyanan (Chulalongkorn University), Gary Jacobs (UK-CAER), and Burtron H. Davis (UK-CAER). Top, as he was affectionately known at CAER, came to the Center as a Fulbright Scholar after receiving a grant in 2012. The grant application was written by his three advisors, with Dr. Jacobs and Prof. Davis serving as his hosts in the USA. During his stay, he made presentations at national and international meetings and was a co-author on 6 refereed publications.

 

His primary research explored the use of silver as a promoter in cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts to not only possibly replace expensive precious metal promoters (e.g., platinum), but to also improve the product selectivity away from undesirable light gas products. Much of his work involved the use of synchrotron radiation, and Top had the opportunity to accompany Dr. Jacobs on visits to the synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as to collaborate with researchers at Argonne National Laboratory.

 

In May of 2014, Dr. Jacobs received funding from the Royal Golden Jubilee program to visit Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, and serve on Top’s graduate committee. On May 16th, Top successfully defended his thesis, entitled “Utilization of methane: methylation of benzene with methane, and gas-to-liquids (GTL) via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.” The same day, Dr. Jacobs gave a one hour seminar entitled “Applications of synchrotron methods in the characterization of catalysts for the production of alternative fuels.”

 



DEDI New Personnel Visit UK CAER

clock June 4, 2014 13:37 by author Alice
New staffers at DEDI (Department for Energy Development and Independence, part of the Commonwealth of Kentucky's Energy and Environment Cabinet) toured various UK CAER science areas to better understand the various types of research activities that occur at the energy center. In addition to an introduction by Dr. Rodney Andrews, CAER Director, the renewables lab included the building's green characteristics as well as solar, elecrochemical power sources and biofuels research areas. Also included on the tour was the petrology lab, clean fuels and chemicals lab, power generation lab demo, briquetting, algae greenhouse, carbon materials and minerals research labs.


KAM Tours UK CAER Labs

clock June 4, 2014 13:32 by author Alice

 

Individuals from the Kentucky Manufacturing Association toured CAER labs recently to help develop potential partnerships between Kentucky's manufacturing industry and UK CAER.