University of Kentucky CAER Home

Coal Combustion Products Utilization and Management: A Practical Workshop

DATE: April 29-30, 2014

The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) will host a workshop on coal ash utilization in Lexington, KY. The workshop will offer a comprehensive overview of coal combustion products (CCP) from the point of generation to inclusion in buildings, agriculture, infrastructure, and environmental remediation projects. The event is targeted at those who wish to increase their knowledge of the materials and the opportunities for recycling. Generators, marketers, consultants, public officials and students will find this workshop valuable in understanding the scope of CCP use and issues related recycling.




Introduction to Fly Ash Basics

  • Bob Jewell, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

The goal of this presentation is to provide an introduction to coal combustion ash including:

  • Use of coal in the United States.
  • How coal is formed and what are the various ranks.
  • Types of coal mining and combustion technologies.
  • A description of coal combustion products (CCPs).
  • A discussion on the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of coal combustion products.
  • The standards and specifications for CCPs.

Bob Jewell is an Associate Research Scientist for the Environmental and Coal Technologies (ECT) group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research. His research encompasses process development for ash beneficiation including ash sampling techniques, the fabrication of new low energy, low CO2 emitting construction materials including cements and concretes from coal by products. Additionally, Bob is focused on the development of smart energy-harvesting cementitious materials for civil engineering structures. He is the author of numerous technical reports and publications, as well as one patent. He has more than 10 years of energy research experience related to coal byproduct utilization and has been a leading researcher on projects for the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institute for Hometown Security. He received a Masters degree from the University of Kentucky in 2004 in Geological Sciences; and is currently a PhD Candidate in the Department of Civil Engineering.


Fly Ash Utilization in Cement and Concrete

  • Bob Rathbone, Boral IP Holdings LLC

The utilization of fly ash in cement and concrete accounts for the single largest beneficial use of fly ash in the United States. This presentation focuses on the technology behind the use of fly ash in concrete and highlights the benefits and drawbacks associated with this application. Some of the benefits include improved workability, better long-term durability, as well as a reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the use of Portland cement in concrete. Some of the potential drawbacks are also discussed, including reduction in short-term strength, problems with achieving desired amounts of entrained air, and nuisance odors that can occur with ammonia-laden ash.

Bob Rathbone is a senior research scientist with Boral IP Holdings LLC located in San Antonio, Texas. At Boral, Mr. Rathbone is primarily responsible for the evaluation of durability of multiple types of construction products. Prior to joining Boral, he was a research scientist for 20 years at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research where he conducted research on the utilization of coal, various coal-derived products, and coal combustion byproducts such as fly ash, bottom ash, FGD gypsum and FBC ash. Mr. Rathbone graduated with a BS in Geology from the Ohio State University and an MS in Geology from Penn State University.


Coal Ash Utilization

  • Jack Groppo, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

This presentation will provide an overview of the various uses for bottom ash, fly ash and boiler slag. A discussion of each utilization option will include descriptions of quality considerations and general practices for major utilization options such as aggregate, concrete, clinker feed, structural fill, and mining applications. Utilization statistics for each application will be examined to provide a detailed scope of current beneficial use practice in the US, and will be compared to utilization statistics from other countries around the world.

Jack Groppo received BS and MS degrees in Mining and Minerals Engineering from Virginia Tech and a Ph.D., in Mining Engineering from the University of Kentucky. He has worked for the North Carolina State University Minerals Research and American Cyanamid Company developing specialty reagents for numerous mining and related industry applications. In 1985, he joined the staff at the UK Center for Applied Energy Research in Lexington, KY where his work currently focuses on developing combustion ash beneficiation and utilization technologies and providing technical assistance to operators of industrial-scale plants using these technologies. He has been extensively involved in the development, design, construction and operation of several ash processing facilities that currently produce and market over 300K tons/yr of products from combustion ash.


Ash Pond Management, Conversion and Abandonment

  • Kent C. Cockley, PE, Director, Engineering, GAI Consultants, Inc.

The US Environmental Protection Agency is expected to issue new regulations this year that will affect the ways coal combustion residuals (CCRs) are managed in impoundments and landfills. CCR impoundments will be required to cease operations within a prescribed timeframe (probably 5 years), or cease operations when the impoundment reaches its useful life. The presentation will address the most common methods for closing CCR impoundments, as well as the technical considerations associated with converting an existing CCR impoundment to a landfill.


Introduction to Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)

  • Anne Oberlink, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

A brief introduction of the different types of dry FGD systems and products, and some of today's uses for the dry FGD products.

Anne Oberlink is an Associate Research Scientist for the Environmental and Coal Technologies group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research. She holds two M.S. degrees in chemistry, and has experience in working with slags, cements, cement additives, and clay minerals, among others.


Wet FGD Systems - Gypsum Characterization and Uses

  • Lamar Larrimore, Southern Company

This information describes background on wet FGD systems, including gypsum production - both quantities and physical/chemical/engineering properties. There is also an overview of major beneficial uses such as wallboard, cement manufacturing and agriculture. In particular, agriculture is fast-developing use with significant room to grow.

Southern Company has worked with growers and distributors to develop a network of more than 100 agronomic demonstration sites in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. These sites have been established over a 10-year period and include a variety of crops, soil types, and locations.

Data includes crop yield and various environmental information, primarily soil and plant tissue analysis for trace metals. Outstanding average yield increases ranging from 10-50% have been observed for all plants tested - including peanuts, cotton, tomatoes, watermelon, cantaloupes, alfalfa, hay, soybeans, turfgrass, and pine trees. In addition, environmental data shows no increase in trace element concentrations for gypsum plots compared to the adjacent control plots.

Lamar Larrimore is Principal Research Engineer within the Research & Environmental Affairs organization at Southern Company. Responsibilities include developing and managing field and laboratory R&D programs to evaluate a variety of utilization and disposal applications for coal combustion products - ash and FGD gypsum - throughout the four-state area served by Southern Company. He has 30 years experience with technologies in these areas. In addition, Lamar manages Southern Company's extensive membership in the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) utility research organization.

Lamar attended the University of Alabama (Tuscaloosa), where he received undergraduate and graduate degrees in civil engineering. He is a member of American Society of Civil Engineers and is a registered Professional Engineer in Alabama.


CCP Recycling Challenges - Taking a Risk-Based Approach

  • Lisa JN Bradley, PhD, DABT - AECOM

Coal combustion products (CCPs) are ingredients in many materials used in building, transportation, agricultural, and other industries. The benefits of these CCP applications to the materials' properties, for the environment, and the economy have been well-documented, but are not necessarily widely understood. The spotlight has been put on some uses of CCPs as a result of the protracted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) rule-making. USEPA has consistently verbally supported the beneficial uses of CCPs through-out the rule-making process, and has recently released a "Methodology for Evaluating Encapsulated Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Residuals" report, and has applied the methodology in a report titled "Coal Combustion Residual Beneficial Use Evaluation: Fly Ash Concrete and FGD Gypsum Wallboard." An analysis of this evaluation will be presented.

USEPA plans to release a methodology for the evaluation of unencapsulated uses of CCPs, however, the timeline for that has not yet been set. This presentation will discuss conceptual site model-based approaches for the evaluation of unencapsulated uses. The presentation will also provide an overview of information that can be used to put coal ash and its beneficial uses into context.

Lisa JN Bradley, Ph.D., DABT, is a Vice President and Senior Toxicologist/Risk Assessor and with AECOM. She has a Ph.D. in toxicology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is certified by the American Board of Toxicology, and has 25 years of experience in risk assessment and toxicology consulting, and is a global risk practice technical lead for AECOM. She has managed risk assessments for hazardous waste sites in many USEPA Regions under CERCLA and RCRA, and under many state programs. She has conducted risk assessments for coal ash landfills, developed environmental communications for proposed landfills, and has worked with clients to evaluate and comment on state groundwater standards for coal ash related constituents.

Dr. Bradley is the manager and technical lead for AECOM's coal combustion product (CCP) initiative, and has been active with utilities and industry trade groups in responding to EPA's proposed rulemaking. She has published and given many talks on various aspects of CCP risk assessment issues and most recently issued a report on Coal Ash Material Safety with the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) and was recently elected to the Executive Committee of the ACAA by the Board of Directors.

Dr. Bradley is experienced in public speaking, risk communication, and agency negotiations, and she has published articles in peer reviewed scientific journals based on both her laboratory and risk assessment work.


Recovered Ash

  • Tom Robl, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

With hundreds of millions of tons in storage, ponded and landfilled fly ash represents a potential long term strategic resource for the U.S. The nature of this resource as well as methods for recovery and beneficiation have been a subject of investigation of the UK CAER for more than 20 years. The discussion will include the chemistry of the ponded ash, beneficiation methodology and the pozzolanic behavior of the ash in concrete and masonry. Although the discussion will mostly focus on Class F ash fly ash, other types of ponded coal products will also be included.

Dr Thomas L. Robl is the Associate Director for Environmental and Coal Technologies (ECT) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research. ECT is a multi-disciplinary research group consisting of chemists, material and civil engineers and earth scientist that conduct cross cutting research into the management and utilization of coal combustion products. The research encompasses process development for ash beneficiation, the fabrication of new low energy, low CO2 emitting construction materials including cements, concretes and polymer composites from coal by products. He is the author of more than 150 technical reports and publications, as well as four patents. He has more than 30 years of energy research experience related to coal utilization and has been the principal investigator on projects for the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation and NATO. He is a member of the University of Kentucky Graduate Faculty and is a Director of the American Coal Association and Co-Chairman of the World of Coal Ash International Symposium. He received a PhD from the University of Kentucky in 1977 in Geology.


Commercialization of Geopolymer and Other Activated Cements

  • Stephen M. Bryan, President, Orcem Americas, Inc.

This presentation reviews the commercial history of alkali-activated cements in the USA from their origins in the late 1800s through the present.

Geopolymers along with other alkali activated and non-alkali activated cement technologies will be discussed, including the requisite characteristics of the base raw materials such as slags, fly ash and other pozzolans.

The barriers to entry for commercialization of non-portland cement concrete technologies will be described, along with the business model options for valorizing activation technologies.

Finally some of the current business ventures in geopolymer and activated cement technologies will be summarized, along with the key opportunities and threats they and future market entrants may face in the future.

Stephen M. Bryan is the President of Orcem Americas, and the VP of Business Development for Ecocem Materials Ltd (Ireland), its parent company. Ecocem Materials Ltd is developer, producer and marketer of high performance sustainable cements and binders.

Mr. Bryan holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Iowa State University and an MBA in International Business from the University of Texas - San Antonio. He has worked in the cement industry over 25 years with responsibilities in operations, technology, business development, strategy and international trading.


How Will the New Reporting Criteria in LEED v4 Affect the Fly Ash Industry

  • Lionel Lemay, Senior Vice President of Sustainability, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

Over the past 10 years the LEED rating system developed by the US Green Building Council has steadily transformed the marketplace and is set to do so again with the newly released LEED v4. The new version has radically overhauled of the Materials and Resources (MR) credits. The revamped MR credits, now called Building Product Disclosure and Optimization, will create opportunities for manufacturers who take the path to transparency through Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports, and Health Product Declarations (HPDs). Well established in other industries, these metrics are starting to appear in the construction industry as common methodologies for assessing the sustainable performance of a product, process or organization. This presentation will offer an overview of LEED v4 and how these new reporting requirements will affect the fly ash industry.

Lionel Lemay PE, SE, LEED AP: Mr. Lemay is Sr. Vice President, Sustainability and Technical Resources for the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA). He manages programs that assist concrete producers, contractors, and design professionals transform concrete manufacturing and construction to improve overall sustainability of the concrete industry. He manages programs to educate concrete industry professionals, engineers and architects on the proper use and design of concrete for buildings, parking areas, roadways, and other applications.

Mr. Lemay has written numerous articles on concrete design and construction and is co-author of the McGraw-Hill book Insulating Concrete Forms for Residential Design and Construction and contributor for FEMA 320 Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business. He is a Registered Professional Engineer and Structural Engineer in the State of Illinois. He is also a LEED Accredited Professional. Mr. Lemay holds a bachelors and masters degree in civil engineering and applied mechanics from McGill University in Montreal, Canada.


Leaching and Sorption Considerations for Ash Use and Disposal

  • John Daniels, Associate Professor, Interim Chair, Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNC Charlotte

This presentation will review laboratory and field aspects of leaching and sorption processes as it relates to ash use and disposal. It will review recently approved methods (e.g., Methods 1313, 1314, 1315, and 1316) as part of the U.S. EPA's SW-846 document "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods" and place them into context with current/historical practice. Example project data with limitations, and applications will be discussed. Participants will be provided with a summary table that compares the purpose, procedure, and sample data for "old" and "new" methods.

John Daniels is the Interim Chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) at UNC Charlotte. Previously he was a Program Director for the Geomechanics/Geomaterials and Geotechnical Engineering Programs in the Directorate for Engineering, Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Before that he worked for TRC Environmental Corporation, Lowell, MA as a project engineer. He is a registered professional engineer in North Carolina and Massachusetts and has led numerical, laboratory, and field-based projects for utilities and consultants, as well as state, national and foreign agencies. Much of this work has focused on physical and chemical controls on soils and industrial byproducts, with a focus on coal fly ash. At Vanderbilt University's request, his laboratory participated in the bias testing as part of the approval process for Method 1314. His work with organo-silanes to render soil and ash hydrophobic has been recognized as a potential method for reducing infiltration and leachability, as cited in the U.S. EPA's proposed rule on Coal Combustion Residuals. He is active in ASTM International, serving on D18 and E50, the latter of which is responsible for the E2277 Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills. His textbook, co-authored with H-Y. Fang, entitled "Introductory Geotechnical Engineering: An Environmental Perspective" was released in 2006. (About Dr. Daniels).


The State of Federal Regulation of Coal Combustion Products

  • Thomas H. Adams, Executive Director, American Coal Ash Association

Federal regulation of solid wastes, including coal combustion products (CCP), comes primarily through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. Since enactment the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made several attempts to create federal regulations which would control disposal and beneficial use of CCP. The agency was directed to study CCP and report to Congress on the safety of CCP and propose regulations sufficient to protect human health and the environment. In 1993 and again in 2000 the EPA determined that CCP did not warrant management as hazardous waste. Following the massive spill at the Tennessee Valley Authority Plant in Kingston, TN in December 2008, the EPA decided to revisit the earlier determinations. Since taking this decision, beneficial use of CCP has been negatively impacted by regulatory uncertainty created by the action of the EPA. This presentation will provide the latest information on the effort to create federal regulations covering disposal and beneficial use of coal combustion products.

Thomas H. Adams has been the Executive Director of the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) since February, 2009. He also serves as President of the American Coal Ash Association Educational Foundation. From 2003 to 2009 he was Manger of Chapter Relations and International Activities for the American Concrete Institute. He also served as Executive Director of the American Shotcrete Association at the same time. Prior to joining the American Concrete Institute Mr. Adams spent over 30 years in the management positions in the ready mixed concrete industry in sales, marketing, technical service, and operations. He has also served as chief operating officer of the Michigan Concrete Association.

Mr. Adams is an active participant with organizations relevant to the beneficial use industry including ASTM International, the American Concrete Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, and the World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network.

Mr. Adams is a native of Detroit, Michigan. He studied business administration and strategic management at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan and Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

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